SEI: Unicode Scripts Research



• 001:Ahom • 002:Alpine Scripts • 003:Anatolian Hieroglyphs • 004:Aramaic • 005:Avestan • 006:Aztec pictograms • 007:Bagam • 008:Balinese • 009:Balti • 010:Bamum • 011:Bassa • 012:Batak • 013:Blissymbolics • 014:Box Headed • 015:Brahmi • 016:Buginese • 017:Buthakukye • 018:Byblos • 019:Carian • 020:Chakma • 021:Chalukya • 022:Cham • 023:Chinook • 024:Chola • 025:Cirth • 026:Cypro-Minoan • 027:Dai Bopomofo • 028:Egyptian hieroglyphs • 029:Egyptian Transliteration Chars. (Latin script) • 030:Elbasan • 031:Elymaic • 032:Ersu Shaba • 033:Fraser • 034:Grantha • 035:HamNoSys • 036:Hatran • 037:Hungarian Runic • 038:Iberian • 039:Indus Valley Script • 040:Javanese • 041:Jurchin • 042:Kaithi • 043:Kayah Li • 044:Kawi • 045:Khamti • 046:Kharosthi • 047:Khotanese • 048:Kitan Large Script • 049:Kitan Small Script • 050:Kpelle • 051:Lahnda • 052:Lanna • 053:Lepcha • 054:Linear A • 055:Loma • 056:Lycian • 057:Lydian • 058:Mandaic • 059:Manichaean • 060:Mayan Hieroglyphs • 061:Mende • 062:Meroitic • 063:Methei • 064:Modi • 065:Moon script • 066:Myanmar extensions • 067:Nabataean • 068:Naxi Geba • 069:Naxi Tomba • 070:New Tai Lue • 071:Newari • 072:N’Ko • 073:North Arabic • 074:Numidian • 075:Nushu (Nu Shu) • 076:Ol Chiki • 077:Old Permic • 078:Orkhon • 079:Pahawh Hmong • 080:Palmyrene • 081:Phoenician • 082:Pollard Phonetic • 083:Proto-Elamite • 084:Pyu • 085:Rejang • 086:Rongo Rongo • 087:Samaritan • 088:Satavahana • 089:Saurashtra • 090:Sharada • 091:Siddham • 092:Sorang Sompeng • 093:South Arabian • 094:Soyombo • 095:Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform • 096:Sundanese • 097:Sutton SignWriting • 098:Takri • 099:Tangut • 100:Tengwar • 101:Tifinagh • 102:Tirhuta • 103:Tulu • 104:Turkestani • 105:(Old) Uighur • 106:Vai • 107:Varang Kshiti • 108:Vedic accents • 109:Viet Thai • 110:Visible Speech • 111:Woleai script • 112:Yezidi • 113:Yi extensions

ID: 001

NAME: Ahom

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Tai Ahom

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: historical (possibly a living minority script)

USED FOR (language/family): Ahom, Tai-KCEai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek

USED WHERE: India (A Thai tribe in Assam)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C13th-C19th

ORIGIN: Probably derived from the Brahmi script and akin to the Shan script.

COMMENTS: The Ahom people ruled the Brahmaputra valley in Assam between the C13th to C18th. Ahom was replaced with Assamese in the early C19th.

Efforts are being made to revive the language. http://thaistudies.rsu.ac.th/hum113/project2/ahom_belief.htm

Ahom is still a contemporary liturgical language, used only by Mawsams. Mawhungs and the Mawplangs, the three priestly Ahom classes.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=AHO

http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=AHO

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ahom.htm

http://www.iitg.ernet.in/rcilts/siamese_as.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.southasiabibliography.de/Bibliography/Tai/tai.html

http://www.uni-hamburg.de/Wiss/FB/10/ChinaS/SOAF/Mitarbeiter/Terwiel/Publikationen.html

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.evertype.com

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ahom.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. P.69. (untranslated text sample only)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 002

NAME: Alpine Scripts

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Lepontic, Rhaetic, Gallic and Venetic, North Italic, Sub-Alpine, North Etruscan

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR: Venetic, Rhaeitic, Lepontic, Noric.

USED WHERE: Italy

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C3rd-C1st BC.

ORIGIN: Old Italic, Etruscan

COMMENTS: Influential in devising the Runic script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/wynnyogh/thorn.html

www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch13.pdf

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.veneti.info/english/htme/venetie.htm

http://www.runewebvitki.com/Rune%20Lore.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Bonfante, Larissa. 1996. “The Scripts of Italy”, in Peter T. Daniels and William Bright (eds) The world’s writing systems. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS: In progress


ID: 003

NAME: Anatolian Hieroglyphs

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Luvian, Luwian, Luwiyan, (formerly given incorrectly in this list as "Hittite Hieroglyphs")

TYPE: Logosyllabary

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Luvian, Anatolian, Indo-European

USED WHERE: (Ancient Hittite Empire) Southern Anatolia and Northern Syria.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C10th BC to C7th BC

ORIGIN: Luwian symbols might be independent, though some similarity can be found with the Elamite hieroglyphic script in shape of symbols, and with Babylonian cuneiform in the structure of the script.

COMMENTS: Woodard mentions a cuneiform syllabary (written by professional scribes on clay tablets) and a hieroglyphic syllabary (monumental carved rock inscriptions in Luvian. Alsofor names and titles on seals) (pp.552-555).

Woodard states that this script makes use of logograms from Sumerian and Akkadian.

The corpus of texts are categorized into Old, Middle and New (Neo-Hittite) Scripts.

500 symbols.

Currently being deciphered (Nakanishi)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/luwian.html

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: https://sourceforge.net/projects/hittitefont

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/script/luwia2.html

http://www.ancientscripts.com/luwian.html

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 40.

http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/luvian.pdf

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3144.pdf


ID: 004

NAME: Aramaic

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Proto-Hebrew

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Aramaic, Hebrew, Ammonite, Proto-Sinaitic

USED WHERE: Northern Syria and Mesopotamia (Aram was a state in ancient Syria).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C9th BC to C6th-7th BC.

ORIGIN: Derived from Phoenician.

COMMENTS: This writing was the basis of Eastern alphabets. Aramaic is the parent-script of Early Sogdian, Edessan script, Elymaic script, Hatran script, Hebrew, Kharoshthi, Mandaic script, Nabatean script, Palmyran script, Parthian and the Psalter script.

Contemporary with the Roman Empire, several peoples used varieties of Aramaic script that had become cursive (no comprehensive survey of these “Late Aramaic” scripts has yet been published). These include the Palmyrans, the Nabateans. The Manichean script, as well, belongs in this group (Daniels and Bright, p.499).

Woodard names two scripts from this period, the Aramaic square script and the Syriac Estrangelo script (p. 393).

The other main writing system used for Aramaic was developed by Christian communities: a cursive form known as the Syriac alphabet.

It is still used as a liturgical language by Christian communities in Syria, Lebanon and Iraq, and is still spoken by small numbers of people in Azerbaijan, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Lebanon and Syria.

Prior to the C7th, the script represents consonantal phonemes only, although four of the letters were also sometimes used to represent certain vowel phonemes. The Aramaic inventory of consonantal phonemes did not exactly match the Phoenician inventory, so some of the letters originally represented two or more phonemes. Diacritic systems were also used to indicate vowels.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodard, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://lexicorient.com/e.o/aramaic.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/aramaic.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramaic_language

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.historian.net/files.htm

http://www.peshitta.org/initial/software.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/aramaic.htm

http://www.ancientscripts.com/aramaic.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramaic_alphabet

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. P.42 (untranslated text sample only).

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. pp.499-514.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 005

NAME: Avestan

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Avesta, Pazend, Pazand

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Living Minority Script

USED FOR (language/family): Avestan, Indo-European (Indo-Iranian)

USED WHERE: Iran (Sassanian Persia)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C3rd to C7th

ORIGIN: Modelled on the Pahlavi alphabet of Persia (although greatly enlarged in inventory), which itself was derived from a simplified cursive version of Aramaic.

COMMENTS: Avestan is the language of the Zoroastrian scriptures, from 600 B.C. Zoroastrian.

Living minority script, used in ritual and other hieratic contexts in Zoroastrian communities (numbering approximately 140 000 members in India, Iran and North America).

There are 14 vowels and 33 consonants in the alphabet. Avestan writing is read from right to left. Vowels are not written. *Elaboration of Pahlavi

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

http://www.ancientscripts.com/avestan.html

http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=AVS

Woodard, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=AVS

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Hoffman, K. and B. Forssman. 1996. Avestiche Laut-und Flexionslehre. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.iranianlanguages.com/dctr.htm

http://cnes.cla.umn.edu/resources/IranianPages/avesta_fonts.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/avestan.html

http://www.iranchamber.com/scripts/avestan_alphabet.php

http://cnes.cla.umn.edu/resources/IranianPages/avesta_fonts.htm

http://www.iranianlanguages.com/avestan/avestan_abc.htm

http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/idg/iran/avest/avestbs.htm (text samples only)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. P.44. (untranslated text sample only – regular and cursive Pahlavi)

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 527.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 006

NAME: Aztec pictograms

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Nahuatl, Uto-Aztecan

USED WHERE: by Mexica in Southern Mesoamerica

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C15th to C17th

ORIGIN: Derived from the Mixtec writing system.

COMMENTS: From the Aztec Empire in Mexico that flourished before the Spanish invasion. The Aztecs adopted a writing system that had been used in Central Mexico for at least a thousand years before. This was written on media such as deer-skin and paper codices.

However, when the Aztecs conquered all neighboring states in the early 15th century CE, they burned all their books. And, in turn, after the Conquest, Spanish priests burned innumerable volumes of Aztec codices. Therefore, no pre-Columbian book from Central Mexico has survived. All surviving documents about Aztec writing were composed after the Conquest and contained a mixture of Aztec glyphs and Spanish notes. There are a few codices made before the Conquest from the Puebla region in a somewhat different style known as the ‘international’ Mixteca-Puebla, style. Interestingly, this same style might have been the source of Aztec writing. Ultimately, the Mixteca-Puebla style most likely came from Mixtec writing. (From http://www.ancientscripts.com )

The writing system of the Aztecs is very rudimentary. Its core consists of a set of calendrical signs and a vigesimal number system. Aztec numbers are represented by long sequences of dots. In general, the Aztecs almost exclusively used dots on manuscripts as well as on stone monuments, but the more ancient bar-and-dot system does make rare appearances on carved monuments as well, primarily due to artistic consideration. The dot system, while feasible for calendrical use (since no number will ever exceed 20), was impossible when dealing with accounting, especially since the Aztecs had to record large amounts of tribute frequently demanded from its provinces. The Codex Mendoza, another post-Conquest manuscript, depicted life in Central Mexico around the time of conquest and also contained a section on the tribute exacted by the Aztec Empire. To count items in excess of 20 efficiently, the Aztecs used glyphs for the numbers 20 (a flag), 400 (a feather), and 8000 (a bag of incense). In addition to calendrical and numeric signs, a number of highly pictorial logograms were used to write down personal names, names of places, and historical events. For example, there are many records of the Aztec army conquering other cities documented in the Codex Mendoza. (http://www.ancientscripts.com )

Nahuatl glosses often accompany the glyphs.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/aztec.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.albany.edu/~cr8474/pathfinder.html#aztec

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/aztec.html

http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20397---Theme%207--Aztec_writing_system.htm (charts)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 007

NAME: Bagam

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Eghap

TYPE: syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): Mengaka (alternate names: Bagam, Gham, Megaka: Begam), Niger-Congo

USED WHERE: Cameroon. Nigeria.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C19th to current.

ORIGIN: Possibly Bamum. Bagam is an indigenous script.

COMMENTS: 100+ characters. 20 000 speakers of Mengaka. Possible connection of the Bagam numerals to the Bamum numerals. Noted at: http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/amu_chma_26.html

The only known example of the Bagam script is held in the Haddon Library of Cambridge University, deposited by a British military officer who served in Cameroon in the First World War. (http://www.bl.uk/about/policies/endangeredarch/tuchscherer.html )

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=xmg

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://cgm.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/africa.html

http://www.ziva.org.zw/afrikan.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Tuchscherer, Konrad: The lost script of the Bagam, African Affairs, The Journal of the Royal African Society, London, 1999, 98 (390), 55-77.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. Mark Batty Publisher. ISBN: 0972424067.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 008

NAME: Balinese

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Balinese (3+ million speakers), Austronesian

USED WHERE: Indonesia - Bali, Nusapenida, Lombok, Java and Sulawesi.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C11th AD to contemporary (predominately liturgical)

ORIGIN: Descendent of the Brahmic script and close to the Javanese script.

COMMENTS: Also used for writing Kawi (Old Javanese). Some Balinese words are also borrowed from Sanskrit, thus Balinese script is also used to write words from Sanskrit. The Latin-related Tulisan Bali script is also used to write Balinese.

The Balinese script is still in use today, although very few people are familiar with it and its purposes are primarily liturgical. Generally, the Latin alphabet is used instead.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/alphabet.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balinese_language

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/balinese.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/balisimbar.htm

http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/balinese.htm

http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/alphabet.htm (charts)

http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/baliunicode-acl1.htm (US Congress library)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. P.80.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 009

NAME: Balti

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Tibetan Balti script.

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): Baltistan. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Western

USED WHERE: Baltistan (Baltiyul). Contemporary India (67 000 speakers of Balti language - Jammu and Kashmir) and Pakistan (270 000 speakers of Balti in Pakistan. Primarily northeastern Pakistan: Baltistan District, Skardu, Rondu, Shigar, Khapalu, Kharmang, and Gultari valleys.)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C8th-C16th

ORIGIN: Tibetan script. Hybrid of Arabic and Indian scripts (Nakanishi).

COMMENTS: Related to the Arabic script. Balti is written from right to left horizontally, in the Arabic manner. Contemporary Balti is written with the Persi-Urdu script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.unicode.org/Public/TEXT/UTR-3.TXT

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bft

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://koshur.org/Linguistic/7.html

http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=BFT

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: M. Hasnain Sengge Thsering ‘Key Issues in Contemporary Balti Language and Script’.

Backstrom, Peter C. 1992. ‘Balti’. In Peter C. Backstrom and Carla F. Radloff (eds.), Languages of northern areas, 3-27.

Sindi, Ghulam Hyder. 2003. Baltistan: society and language

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue37/anderson/

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. P. 69.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 010

NAME: Bamum

ALTERNATE NAME(S): A-ka-u-ku script

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script (Nakanishi claims the Bamum script is extinct. However, Konrad Tuchscherer notes claim the script is – “still being taught; many extant texts; community interest high”).

USED FOR (language/family): Bamum (Bamun Bamoun, Bamoum). Niger-Congo.

USED WHERE: Cameroon

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C19th to current.

ORIGIN: Devised by Bamum King Ibrahim Njoya.

COMMENTS: Also referred to as Shü-mon writing (especially by Mafundikwa). A correction from Tuchscherer claims that “Shu-mon is a misnomer; it more correctly refers to an invented language, which can be written using the Bamum script”.

King Njoya created the Bamum script at the age of 25 in 1896. Three versions of six were developed over 30 years. The initial style was logographic, containing 465 signs. There was also a rebus writing version. The final script was syllabic with 83 signs, 10 numbers and 73 syllables.

466 characters.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. New Jersey: Mark Batty Publisher.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=BAX

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-bamoun.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Konrad Tuchscherer heads a “Bamum Script and Archives Project”.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.members.aon.at/africanfonts.at/bamum.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.proel.org/alfabetos/bamun.html (Spanish)

http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-bamoun.html (letter sample)

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp.86-93.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 105.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 011

NAME: Bassa

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Bassa Vah

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Bassa (353 000 speakers – at 1991). Niger-Congo.

USED WHERE: Liberia, Sierra Leone.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: ? – currently undergoing revival attempts.

ORIGIN: Indigenous. “Vah was initially the throwing or marking of signs in the natural environment by chewing leaves or carving tree bark” (Mafundikwa, p.123).

COMMENTS: Vah directly translates as “to throw a sign”.

Use of the Vah script allowed Basa people to avoid slave traders. Colonial forces halted use of the script, and the written form of the Bassa language declined almost to extinction (Mafundikwa).

The script was restored to Liberia in 1900 by Dr Thomas Gbianvoodeh Lewis (also known as Dr Flo Darvin Lewis). (Mafundikwa).

Expansion programme underway to adapt Bassa for broadcasting, literature, academic and liturgical domains (Bassa Vah Association). http://www.ie-inc.com/vkarmo/bassa.htm

Found to be actively used among Brazilians and Carribeans of Bassa origin.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=BAS

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ie-inc.com/vkarmo/bhist1.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/bassa.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Dalby, David. 1967. A survey of the indigenous scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone: Vai, Mende, Loma, Kpelle and Bassa. African Language Studies 8: 1-51.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.ie-inc.com/vkarmo/bfont.htm

http://www.xenotypetech.com/osxBassa.html ($19 Bassa ‘language kit’)

http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/african.html (Jason Glavy)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/bassa.htm

http://www.ie-inc.com/vkarmo/bcont.htm (chart)

http://www.ie-inc.com/vkarmo/orgbassa.htm (script sample)

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp.124-125.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 012

NAME: Batak

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script. (Nakanishi claims Batak is “seldom used today”).

USED FOR (language/family): Batak Dairi, Batak Karo, Batak Alas-Kluet, Batak Simalungun, Batak Angkola, Batak Toba, Batta, Batak Mandailing. 5 830 000 speakers of modern Batak. Austronesian.

USED WHERE: by the Batak tribe in the northern part of Sumatra, Indonesia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Mid C19th to current

ORIGIN: Indigenous - Descended from the Brahmi script by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts.

COMMENTS: Batak is read from left to right but sometimes printed vertically on bamboo.

In most Batak communities, only the datu (priests) are able to read and write the script where it is mainly used for producing calendars and magical texts.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.unicode.org/Public/TEXT/UTR-3.TXT

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/batak.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Uli Kozok, Warisan Leluhur: Sastra lama dan aksara Batak (isbn 979-9023-33-5)

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.hawaii.edu/indolang/surat (created by Dr Uli Kozok - University of Hawaii).

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/batak.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 81.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 013

NAME: Blissymbolics

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Semantography (1965)

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script – artificial script.

USED FOR (language/family): International auxiliary language.

USED WHERE: International. Used in 33+ countries.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1949 to current.

ORIGIN: Devised by Charles K. Bliss (1897-1985). It was first applied to the communication of children with physical disabilities by an interdisciplinary team at the Ontario Crippled Children’s Centre (now the Bloorview MacMillan Centre) in 1971. Inspired by Chinese ideograms.

COMMENTS: Mainly used as a form of communication for communication, language and learning difficulties.

Blissymbolics has over 2000 symbols.

The script uses symbol combination for complex concepts. It has a sentence-like structure of usage and English word order.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.blissymbolics.org/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/blissymbolics.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bliss_symbols

http://home.istar.ca/~bci/intro.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/external-search/102-2324496-6175308?tag=symbolsdotnet&keyword=blissymbolics&mode=blended

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.symbols.net/blissre.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/blissymbolics.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 014

NAME: Box Headed

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Box-Headed Southern script, Vengi Chalukya

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: historical

USED FOR (language/family): Vengi Chalukya, Indo-Aryan

USED WHERE: Central India, examples found in or around Madhya Pradesh, Telugu Nadu and Hyderabad. This script is used in some inscriptions of the Kadambas and Pallavas in the southern region also.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C6th-C11th

ORIGIN: Brahmi script (‘late’ Brahmi)

COMMENTS: The heads of the letters have small squares which resemble small boxes, hence the script used in them is called ‘box-headed’. *see Chalukya

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

http://www.ciil-ebooks.net/html/iie/four.htm

http://www.indiaprofile.com/religion-culture/buddhisminandhra.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue37/anderson/

http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/language/script/script1d.html (Figures S7 and S8)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 015

NAME: Brahmi

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Indic languages (various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects)

USED WHERE: India (all parts of India except for the northwestern regions, where Kharosthi prevailed).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: early, middle and late from circa. C3rd BC to C4th AD (created during the Mauryan dynasty, possibly under emperor Aśoka himself).

ORIGIN: Controversial. Theories posit that Brahmi is a derivative of a Semitic prototype, perhaps Phoenician, Aramaic or South Semitic, another theory claiming it is an indigenous Indian invention, often associated with the Indus Valley script. The Semitic theory is more strongly, although not conclusively supported by the available data. Comparisons of the forms of early Brahmi letters with presumed Phoenician or Aramaic prototypes are suggestive of a historical connection, but only about half the characters can be more or less clearly associated with corresponding Semitic letters (Daniels and Bright, p. 378).

COMMENTS: The Brahmi script is a “parent script”, the ancestor of all Indian and many Asian writing systems. The oldest datable records in this script are the rock and pillar inscriptions of the Mauryan emperor Aśoka, from the middle of the C3rd BC.

Written from left to right (although several specimens running from right to left have been found).

Info: http://students.washington.edu/baums/tmp/brahmi-proposal.pdf

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/brahmi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.jwajalapa.com/download.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/brahmi.html (charts)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.374-376.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 016

NAME: Buginese

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Bugis, Makassar, Makasarese, Lontara.

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script (at one time the script was extended for use in contracts, trade laws, treaties and maps to cover extensive commercial and maritime activities. Daniels and Bright).

USED FOR (language/family): Buginese, Austronesian

USED WHERE: Southern Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Sumatra - Indonesia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C14th to contemporary.

ORIGIN: Descendent of Brahmi (eastern-most extension of the Indian scripts). Related to Javanese and bears a resemblance to Tagalog.

COMMENTS: 4 million speakers of Buginese. Also spoken in Sabah, Malaysia. The Buginese was also previously used to write Macassar, Bimanese and Madurese.

The alternate script title of Lontara is named after the palm leaves on which it is often inscribed.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bug

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-bugis.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://alibataatpandesal.com/outbox.html

http://www.valdyas.org/conlang.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-bugis.html (charts)

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p.480.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 81.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 017

NAME: Buthakukye

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Beitha Kukju, Albanian

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Albanian, Indo-European

USED WHERE: Formally used in Albania

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Invented circa1840.

ORIGIN: Indigenous. Possibly derived from Greek cursive.

COMMENTS: Beitha Kukju was named after its inventor.

One of the three Albanian scripts developed during the period of Turkish control.

The Beitha Kukju has 32 characters in the alphabet.

Written from left to right.

Albanian has been written with various scripts since the C15th, including Greek, Cyrillic and a Turkish version of the Arabic script. The modern Albanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/albanian.htm#beitha

http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=3843

http://66.94.231.168/language/translatedPage?tt=url&text=http%3a//www.proel.org/alfabetos/albanes.html&lp=es_en&.intl=au

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 28.

http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-alb-gheg.html

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/albanian.htm#beitha

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 018

NAME: Byblos

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Probably syllabary (‘plethoric’ syllabary – multiple symbols with the same syllabic value but also dubbed “pseudo-hieroglyphic” – Daniels and Bright).

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Semitic language. Unknown. Phoenician. (theory of Dhorme 1946 – this theory is debated)

USED WHERE: Former Phoenician city of Byblos (Gebel), modern Jubayl, Lebanon.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C24th-C15th BC

ORIGIN: Inspired by the Egyptian hieroglyphic system.

COMMENTS: Undeciphered. There have been four significant attempts at decipherment.

80 symbols. ‘pseudo-hieroglyphic’. 20 signs borrowed from Egyptian hieroglyphic script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/byblos.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Coulmas, Florian. 1989. The Writing Systems of the World. Oxford: Basil Blackman.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://text.farmsresearch.com/display.php?table=transcripts&id=36

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Brian E. Colless, 'The syllabic inscriptions of Byblos: miscellaneous texts', ABR-NAHRAIN 34 (1996-1997) 42-57

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/byblos.html (tablet image)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 019

NAME: Carian

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Carian, Indo-European, Anatolian

USED WHERE: Formally in Caria, West Anatolia, modern Southwest Asia and historically by Carians in Egypt, serving as mercenaries under Psammetichus I or II (Daniels and Bright, p.285).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 650 BC

ORIGIN: Common features with Hittite and Luwian. Possibly West Semitic.

Daniels and Bright claim: the inscriptions “include characters which formally recall signs of the proto-Greek alphabet and also of the Cretan alphabet and the Cypriote syllabary but they also contain several signs unparalleled among later ancient Greek writing systems” p. 285.

COMMENTS: Carian is a largely undeciphered script (despite bilingual inscriptions with Egyptian hieroglyphic equivalents for Carian signs). The current description is only provisional.

45 signs with variants.

Written both from right to left and left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/saqqara/late/carian.html

Woodard, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.leidenuniv.nl/nino/aeb93/aeb93_4.html

http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=XCAR

http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/chron/chron3.html#650

http://www.crystalinks.com/asiaminor.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Michael Meier-Brügger. 1982. Carian inscriptions

Kammerzell, Frank, Studien zu Sprache und Geschichte der Karer in Ägypten, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, 1993 = Göttinger Orientforschungen. IV. Reihe: Ägypten, 27. (17 x 24 cm; XV, 251 p., fig., ill.). ISBN 3-447-03411-4.

Gosline, Sheldon Lee, Quarry, Setting and Team Marks: The Carian Connection, Journal of Ancient Civilizations, Changchun 13 (1998), 59-82.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 286.

http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/carian.pdf

http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/saqqara/late/carian.html (tablet images)

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~artsfx/notes3.html (tablet image - very poor quality)

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3020.pdf


ID: 020

NAME: Chakma

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Ojhopath (according to the wikipedia)

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): Chakma, Indo-European (560 000 speakers)

USED WHERE: India and Eastern Bangladesh (the Chittagong hills)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN: The Chakma script has similarities with Sanskrit and Burmese.

COMMENTS: Chakma language has close links with Pali, Assamese and Bengali. 260 000 speakers. Script used for liturgical purposes, preserved in palm leaves. Although many elderly Chakma still sign their names in the Chakma script, most Chakma youths no longer use the script. Agar Tara is their old scripture which appears to be a version of Buddhist scripture, Tripitak in broken Pali. The Tara is used extensively on ceremonial occasions like marriages, funerals, etc. The Chakmas also recount their history in ballads called Genkhuli. Chakma is now usually written in Bengali letters.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.pbm-cht.org/indigenous_people.html

http://www.webindia123.com/Mizoram/People/people2.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakma

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 69. http://www.evertype.com/standards/tai/chakma.pdf#search='chakma' (Michael Everson)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 021

NAME: Chalukya

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Box-Headed script, Vengi-Chalukya

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE: South Asia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS:

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 022

NAME: Cham

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Akhar Thrah

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): (especially Eastern) Cham, Austonesian (230 000 speakers)

USED WHERE: (central and southern) Vietnam and Cambodia. (perhaps in some overseas communites – Australia, US).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1000 AD to current

ORIGIN: Brahmi-derived script.

COMMENTS: 75 characters.

There are two main varieties of Cham - Western Cham, spoken in Cambodia (150 000 speakers), and Eastern Cham, spoken in Vietnam (86 000 speakers). Speakers of the former tend to use the Arabic alphabet, while some speakers of the latter still use the Cham alphabet. During the French colonial period, both Cham communities had to use the Latin alphabet.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cham.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Blood, Doris E. 1987. Cham script in a revival movement. In Bloome, David (editor). 1987. Literacy and schooling. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 80.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 023

NAME: Chinook

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Chinook shorthand, Wawa writing, Duployan shorthand

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Chinook pidgin (in 1875 spoken by an estimated 100,000 people along the west coast from Oregon to Alaska).

USED WHERE: Interior BC

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1890-1920s (very few modern speakers)

ORIGIN: duploye

COMMENTS: Fr. Jean-Marie Raphael LeJeune and Bishop Paul Durieu are credited with the adaptation of Duployan shorthand to Chinook jargon.

As a means of bringing literacy to Aboriginal people, Catholic missionaries in the late 1800s developed a phonetic shorthand that could accurately represent the jargon.

19th-century newsletter called the Kamloops Wawa mostly written in the Chinook shorthand. The Wawa (Chinook for chat) was published in Kamloops, BC, between 1891 and 1923. It was a multi-lingual publication written in English, French and Chinook. At one stage, Wawa had a circulation of 3000 at one stage, with an audience as far as Quebec and France.

The Wawa featured both the longhand and the Duployan shorthand version of Chinook Jargon, with English and sometimes French translations, and also translations into other Aboriginal languages.

Original copies were mimeographed, then typewritten.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://library.usask.ca/spcoll/wawa/wawa.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/docs/i18n.ltm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/chinook-and-shorthand.pdf

http://www.michaelkluckner.com/bciw2spahomin.html

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://library.usask.ca/spcoll/wawa/wawa.html

(With assistance from Dave Robertson, U. of Victoria, Canada. ddr11@columbia.edu)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 024

NAME: Chola

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Tamil, Dravidian

USED WHERE: (medieval) Southern India (Chola dynasty)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C9th to C12th

ORIGIN: Dravidian

COMMENTS: One of the Grantha scripts (Nakanishi)

(website claiming computer recognition of the Chola script) http://www.cmi.ac.in/gift/Tamil/tami_cholaperiod.htm

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/01/04/inscrip2.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/01/04/inscrip2.htm (photo of slab inscription)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 025

NAME: Cirth

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Runes, Angertha

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Artificial script

USED FOR (language/family): Khuzdul, Sindarin, English, and other languages.

USED WHERE: Middle Earth in the Lord of the Rings trilogy and other novels.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: to contemporary (scholars and enthusiasts)

ORIGIN: According to the novels, Cirth is based on Futhark. Cirth is a Rune-type alphabet.

COMMENTS: Invented by author and linguist J.R.R. Tolkein.

The Cirth were written from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n1642/n1642.htm

www.evertype.com/standards/csur/cirth.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cirth

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://tug.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/cirth/

http://www.acondia.com/fonts/cirth/

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/csur/cirth.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 026

NAME: Cypro-Minoan

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Logosyllabary

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Eteo-Cretan

USED WHERE: Cyprus

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa 1500-1200 BC

ORIGIN: “Cypro-Minoan” reflects the possibilities that this script is both derivative from a Minoan script and ancestral to the Cypriote script (Daniels and Bright, p.125).

Possibly developed from the Linear A or Linear B scripts (Cypro-Minoan contains some symbols from the latter script).

COMMENTS: Normally written from right to left in horizontal lines. Word breaks not indicated.

Cypro-Minoan has not yet been translated. Example found on the Phaistos disk. Sample corpus meagre : 8 clay tablets, 83 small clay balls, 6 clay cylinders and numerous inscribed artefacts bearing just one or a few signs, on seals, gold rings, potteries, etc. Variation in sign design.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodard, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cypriot.htm

http://www.ancientscripts.com/print.cgi?f=cypriot.html

http://www.anistor.co.hol.gr/english/enback/p042.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cypriot.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 027

NAME: Dai Bopomofo

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Bopomofo, Chu Yin, Zhuyin, Zhuyin-Zimu (“phonetic alphabet”) and Zhuyin-Fuhao (“phonetic symbols”)

TYPE: syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): Chinese, primarily Mandarin, although it is an ancillary system. Bopomofo is the primary writing system for Aboriginal languages in Taiwan.

USED WHERE: Formally it was mainly used in China. Contemporarily, it is taught in China, Taiwan and the US. It is mainly used in Taiwan.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1913 to present.

ORIGIN: based on Chinese characters (Hanzi)

COMMENTS: The Bopomofo were developed as part of a populist literacy campaign following the 1911 revolution; thus they are acceptable to all

branches of modern Chinese culture, although in the People’s Republic of China their

function has been largely taken over by the Pinyin romanization system.

Bopomofo is rendered left to right in horizontal text, but also commonly appears in vertical text.

The system uses 37 special symbols to represent the Mandarin sounds: 21 consonants and 16 vowels.

Hanyu Pinyin is becoming a global standard for phonetic Chinese.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.asiafinest.com/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=2667

anubis.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2213.pdf

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.taigu-mac.com/

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 028

NAME: Egyptian hieroglyphs

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Logosyllabary

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE: Egypt

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Middle Kingdom, 2000 BC

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3237.pdf

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Gardiner, http://unicode.org/~rscook/egypt/20051024/05311-EgyptianHieroglyph.pdf

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: yes.

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS: Submitted


ID: 029

NAME: Egyptian Transliteration Chars. (Latin script)

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE:

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS:

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2241.pdf


ID: 030

NAME: Elbasan

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Elbassan, Albanian

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Albanian, Indo-European

USED WHERE: Central and Southern Albania, the cities of Elbasan and Berat.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C18th (not widely used)

ORIGIN: Indigenous. Possibly based on the Greek script. The Elbasan script is said to have been created by an Albanian teacher named Theodor in the second half of the 18th century.

COMMENTS: 53 characters in the Elbasan script.

Elbasan was named after the central Albanian city of Elbasan, where the script was used (also used in the south of Albania, in Berat).

This script was only briefly used, in conjunction with another minority indigenous script, Beitha Kukju.

Albanian has most commonly been written using a Greek, Latin or Arabic script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://66.94.231.168/language/translatedPage?tt=url&text=http%3a//www.proel.org/alfabetos/albanes.html&lp=es_en&.intl=au

http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-alb-gheg.html

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/albanian.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/albanian.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 031

NAME: Elymaic

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Historical.

USED FOR (language/family): Elymaic

USED WHERE: the Iranian province of Elymais, ancient Elam

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 250BC to C5th AD

ORIGIN: Derived from Aramaic.

COMMENTS: Similar to the Mandean script.

Daniels and Bright – “The Elymaic script, though poorly attested, is the chief predecessor of the adaptations of the Aramaic script used to write a range of Iranian dialects in the ensuing Sassanid period and later”, p. 98.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=elymaic-s

http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/topic_complete.jsp?tm=i18n.ltm&id=elymaic-s

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 032

NAME: Ersu Shaba

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Shaba

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script (liturgical)

USED FOR (language/family): Ersu (also known as Duoxu, Erhsu although these may be dialects), Qiangic Branch of Tiberto-Burman

USED WHERE: China, Tibet

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: living minority script

ORIGIN: Li Jingsheng states that Ersu Shaba could be related to Naxi Dongba, in which the color seems to play an outstanding function.

COMMENTS: A picture writing system, in which the color used is reported to play a role in expressing meaning, used in religious ceremonies. Shaba is also the name of the religion.

A Shaba is a professional religious practitioner who recites their scriptures at weddings, funerals, when treating the sick, in divination and fortune-telling, oral literature, songs.

About 10 people can read the Shaba script. (ethnologue)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ers

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.chinaviva.com/eng/Ersu/ersuintro.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Sun Hongkai. 1982. Ersu Shaba Pictorial Writing. Minzu Yuwen 1982.6.

Li Jingsheng. - Naxi Dongba wen de chuangzhi ji qita () In Dongba wenhua yanjiu suo lunwen xuanji (Chosen Articles of the Department of Researches of the Dongba Culture). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming. 2003

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 033

NAME: Fraser

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Fraser Alphabet, Lisu Alphabet

TYPE: (artificial) alphabet

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Lisu, Tibeto-Burman (spoken by about 657,000 people in Myanmar, India, Thailand and in the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan)

USED WHERE: China, Myanmar, India and Thailand

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1915 to present

ORIGIN: Derived from the Latin alphabet. Devised by James Ostram Fraser.

COMMENTS: In 1992 the Chinese government recognised the Fraser alphabet as the official script for the Lisu language and has encouraged its use since then.

James Ostram Fraser was a Scottish missionary who lived and worked with the Lisu people in China from 1910 to 1949. During his time in China, Fraser learnt to speak Chinese and Lisu and produced a Lisu translation of the New Testament using his alphabet. He also devised a system of muscial notation for the Lisu to use.

The Fraser alphabet consists of uppercase Latin letters, some of which are rotated or inverted.

There is also a “New Lisu script”, devised by Chinese linguists, and based on Pinyin.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisu

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/fraser.htm

http://faculty.washington.edu/zhandel/Handel_Lisu.pdf

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Fraser, J. O. 1922. Handbook of the Lisu (Yawyin) Language. Rangoon: Government Printing House.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.proel.org/mundo/lisu.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 034

NAME: Grantha

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabetic.

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR (language/family): Sanskrit, (also used historically for Tamil-Sanskrit Manipravalam), Indo-European.

USED WHERE: South India

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C6th-C12th (Wikipedia claims Grantha was used until the C19th and widespread use of Devangari).

ORIGIN: Descended from the Brahmi script.

COMMENTS: The Grantha script is one of the earliest Southern script to emerge from the Brahmi script. It further evolved to the Tamil and the Malayalam scripts. It also greatly influenced the Sinhala script of Sri Lanka.

In modern times, the Grantha script is mainly used in certain religious contexts by orthodox Tamil-speaking Hindus. Most notably, they use the script to write a child's name for the first time during the nāmikarṇa naming ceremony, and to write the Sanskrit portion of wedding invitations and announcements of a person's last rites. It is also used in many religious almanacs to print traditional formulaic summaries of the coming year. (wikipedia).

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/grantha.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: James Nye * check out

FONTS AVAILABLE: (Contact IIT Madras: http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/ind_fonts.html )

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/grantha.html (basic Grantha script)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 035

NAME: HamNoSys

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Hamburg Sign Language Notation System

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script - artificial

USED FOR (language/family): It was designed to fit a research setting and should be applicable to every sign language in the world.

USED WHERE: The system is used, for example, in research institutions in Finland, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland and Germany.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: publicly available since 1989

ORIGIN: developed by the Centre for German Sign Language

COMMENTS: It consists of about 200 symbols covering the parameters of handshape, hand configuration, location and movement.

The symbols are as iconic as possible and are easily recognizable. Hamnosys describes the handshapes, orientations, body locations and movements of signs.

HamNoSys is still being improved and extended all the time as the need arises.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.sign-lang.uni-hamburg.de/Projects/HamNoSys.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.signwriting.org/forums/linguistics/ling007.html

http://www.mcs.vuw.ac.nz/comp/graduates/archives/honours/2003/scott-shuyi/shuyi-scott-final-report.pdf.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Prillwitz, Siegmund et al: HamNoSys. Version 2.0; Hamburg Notation System for Sign Languages. An introductory guide. (International Studies on Sign Language and Communication of the Deaf; 5) Hamburg : Signum 1989 - 46 p.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.sign-lang.uni-hamburg.de/Projects/HamNoSys.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.sign-lang.uni-hamburg.de/Projekte/HamNoSys/HamNoSysErklaerungen/englisch/04Handshapes.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 036

NAME: Hatran

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Armazi, North Mesopotamian Aramaic

TYPE: Abjad.

STATUS: Historical.

USED FOR (language/family): Hatran (dialect of ‘Middle’ Aramaic), and related North Mesopotamian Aramaic dialects, Proto-Sinaitic.

USED WHERE: Ancient Hatra (Former Parthian Iranian province, Modern Iraq), North Mesopotamia, Armenia and Georgia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 50 BC to 250 AD

ORIGIN: Descended from Aramaic.

COMMENTS: Attested mainly in inscriptions. Armenia and Geirgia (Armazi) reflect the Hatran script.

Corpora of about 600 texts.

The longest of the engraved inscriptions does not have more than 14 lines.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Aggoula, Basile. 1991. Inventaire des inscriptions hatréennes. Paris: Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner.

Beyer, Klaus. 1998. Die aramäischen Inschriften aus Assur, Hatra und dem übrigen Ostmesopotamien: (datiert 44 v. Chr. bis 238 n. Chr.). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/topic_complete.jsp?tm=i18n.ltm&id=hatran-s

http://anubis.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n2311.pdf

http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1999/v1999.n136

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/cgi-bin/showsubtexts.cgi?keyword=43201

(with assistance from David Taylor, U. Oxford david.taylor@orinst.ox.ac.uk)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 037

NAME: Hungarian Runic

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Székely rovásírás, Rovás, Old Hungarian

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Hungarian (Magyar), Finno-Ugric

USED WHERE: by the Magyars,

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C10th to circa C19th (rare)

ORIGIN: Derive from the Orkhon or Turkic Runic script, Kök Turki script in Europe.

COMMENTS: This script remained in use in remote regions of Transylvania until the late 1850s. A very similar script was used by the Huns. This script has significant cultural importance to Hungarian people (especially Hungarians of Transylvania).

Hungarian Runes were usually written on sticks in boustrophedon style (alternating direction right to left then left to right). (omniglot)

The runes include separate letters for all the phonemes of Hungarian and are in this respect better suited to written Hungarian than the Latin alphabet. (omniglot)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Hungarian_script

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/hungarian_runes.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: (Runic font maker) http://www.dsuper.net/~elehoczk/rfonts.htm

http://fang.fa.gau.hu/~heves/runic.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/hungarian_runes.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 28.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 038

NAME: Iberian

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Paleo-Hispanic

TYPE: Alphabetic (partly syllabic)

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Iberian and Lusitanian, non-Indo-European. Proto-Canaanite (Ancient Scripts). Also Celtiberian, Indo-European (Daniels and Bright).

USED WHERE: Discovered on the Iberian peninsula and Southern France. Used on the Iberian peninsula before it became a territory of the Roman Empire. Used by the Iberi people.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C4th BC to C3rd BC

ORIGIN: Possibly derived from the Punic and Greek alphabets.

COMMENTS: There were two version of the Iberian script - one used in southern France, Catalonia and Castile, the other used in Andalusia and Mursia. The main difference between these versions is the shapes of the glyphs and direction in which they were written. The northern version was written from right to left, while the southern version was written from left to right. (omniglot)

A modified version of the Northern Iberian script was used to write Celtiberian, a Celtic language. (omniglot)

Currently being deciphered (Nakanishi).

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/iberian.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/iberian.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/timessquare/alley/1557/fonts1.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.crystalinks.com/iberian.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 109.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 27.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 039

NAME: Indus Valley Script

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Logosyllabic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Unknown (writing of the Indus culture)

USED WHERE: Indus Valley (now Pakistan)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Circa C25th BC (Nakanishi).

The Indus Valley civilization ended circa C17th BC.

ORIGIN: Linked with the Sumerian script, Hittite script and the Rongo-Rongo script. May share similarities with these scripts.

COMMENTS: Undeciphered. The main corpus of writing dated from the Indus Civilization is in the form of some two thousand inscribed seals in good, legible conditions. * don’t spend too much time on this one

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://zoetoft.members.beeb.net/Scripts/Specificscripts/Indusvalley.htm

http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/script/indus.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/script/indus.jpg (image of inscriptions)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 40.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 040

NAME: Javanese

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Tjarakan, Carakan

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Javanese (75 800 000 speakers of modern Javanese), Malaysia (300 000 speakers), Singapore (800 speakers), Austronesian. Also used for Tengger.

USED WHERE: Java, Bali and Suriname. Possibly used in New Caledonia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C17th to contemporary minority usage.

Used in Java after the Majapahit dynasty.

ORIGIN: Descended from the Brahmi script.

COMMENTS: Javanese has also used in the past to write Balinese and Sudanese. Javanese has also been written with the Pallava alphabet, the Kawi alphabet, in pégon or gundil (versions of Arabic). Javanese has been supplanted by use of the Latin alphabet although Javanese is still is use in ceremonial domains.

Ethnologue mentions that people who speak the Osing language (Java and Bali) “have their own script, which is a modified Javanese script”.

20 consonants and an inherent vowel.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

www.ethnologue.com

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/javanese.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html (Jason Glavy)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 478.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 80.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 041

NAME: Jurchin

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Jurchi, Jurchen, Southern Tungusic

TYPE: Ideographic system

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Jurchin, Sinitic

USED WHERE: Northern China, East Asia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C12th-C16th (arose during the Golden Empire, Jin 1115-1234)

ORIGIN: Siniform script, the form of Jurchin characters are based on those in the Kitan Large script, both borrowing from the Chinese writing system.

COMMENTS: Jurchin was created by Wanyan Xiyin in 1120 (Jurchin “large script”) and officially introduced in 1145.

According to the Ming Sino-Jurchen glossary, the Jurchen script contains 720 characters.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/jurchen.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/topic_complete.jsp?tm=i18n.ltm&id=jurchin-s

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/jurchen.html

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/jurchen.htm

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p.235-237.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 042

NAME: Kaithi

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Mithilakshar

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Near Modern

USED FOR (language/family): Maithili (Maitli, Maitili, Methli, Tirahuta, Bihari, Tirhuti, Tirhutia, Apabhramsa), Indo-European

USED WHERE: (by the Kayasthas) North India (possibly Nepal)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C19th

ORIGIN: Similar script to Syloti Nagri. Resembles the Gujarati script (Nakanishi).

COMMENTS: The original writing for the Bihari language in central India. *see Tirahuta.

Magahi, Maithili and Bhojpuri scripts of Bihar are variations of the Kaithi script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://anubis.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/WG2/docs/n2592

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Grierson, G.A. 1899. A Handbook to the Kaithi Character, 2nd. edition. Calcutta.

FONTS AVAILABLE: developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://anubis.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/WG2/docs/n2592 (single characters)

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 043

NAME: Kayah Li

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Karen branch of Sino-Tibetan Western (language and people also known as Kayah, Karenni, Karennyi, Red Karen, Yang Daeng or Karieng Daeng. 210 000 modern speakers of these languages).

USED WHERE: Kayah and Karen states of Myanmar

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: ? to current

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS:

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kayahli.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: David B Solnit, 1997. Eastern Kayah Li : grammar, texts, glossary. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kayahli.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/tai/kayah-li.pdf

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3038.pdf


ID: 044

NAME: Kawi

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Old Javanese

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical (possibly living minority – used by scholars and in in literary domains)

USED FOR (language/family): Javanese, Austronesian

USED WHERE: Java, Bali and Sumatra in Indonesia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C8th to C17th

ORIGIN: Based on the Pallava script, descended from Brahmi.

COMMENTS: Writing direction is left to right. Kawi was written on palm leaves, ‘lontar’.

The Kawi alphabet became the basis of the current Javanese orthography.

The transition from Kawi into Javanese during the 13th century BCE was more stylistic than structural. Only the visual composition of the script changed. The way the script worked remained unchanged.

‘Kawi’ means ‘language of the poets’.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/javanese.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=kawi

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.gamelanhuis.nl/Links/body_links.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.georgenash.freeserve.co.uk/indon.html (inscription, Stone III)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 045

NAME: Khamti

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Khamti, Sino-Tibetan

USED WHERE: Myanmar

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: Lik Tai- current script?

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=KHT

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/tai/khamti.pdf

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 046

NAME: Kharosthi

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Middle Indo-Aryan “Prakrit” dialects, specifically linked to the Prakrit dialect of Gandhari, Indo-European

USED WHERE: Modern-day northern Pakistan, eastern Afghanistan with some examples found in India.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C5th-C3rd BC to C4th AD

ORIGIN: Contemporarily with Brahmi. Kharosthi slightly older than Brahmi, according to Daniels and Bright.

Probably derived from Aramaic, the large majority of the characters can be readily connected with the corresponding Aramaic letters. Furthermore, Kharosthi arose in the western reaches of India which from the late C16th BC were under the control of the Achaemenian Empire, where Aramaic was widely used.

COMMENTS: Structurally, the Kharosthi and the Brahmi are nearly identical.

Kharosthi was essentially a regional script only, and died out in ancient times, leaving no modern descendants.

Written from right to left. Had a decidedly cursive look (Daniels and Bright, p. 375).

Daniels and Bright, p. 376 – “Certain documents, as yet poorly understood, from the northern Silk Route oases appear to be in local derivatives of Kharosthi, possibly as late as the C17th; but other than this, Kharosthi died out without any survivals, and unlike Brahmi did not undergo any radical changes in form during the five centuries or so in which it was in wide use”.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/kharosthi.html

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kharosthi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://depts.washington.edu/ebmp/software.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/kharosthi.html

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 42.

Encoded: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2732.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 374-376.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 047

NAME: Khotanese

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Turkmenistan Brahmic

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Khotanese (also known as Saka)

USED WHERE: Ancient Khotan in central Asia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN: variant of Brahmi. Within the Geneology of the Gupta scripts (Nakanishi).

COMMENTS:

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.athenapub.com/9khotan1.htm http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/unsupported.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 96.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 048

NAME: Kitan Large Script

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Khitan, Liao

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Kitan, an Altaic language

USED WHERE: Manchuria, Northern China. The writing of the Liao Empire.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 920-1191

ORIGIN: Chinese script, Sinitic. Some logograms are taken directly from Chinese while others cannot be identified with any Chinese sign (Daniels and Bright, p. 230).

The Kitan Small script was inspired by the Uighur alphabet (omniglot).

COMMENTS: written in vertical lines from right to left.

Large script and small script styles, used concurrently.

Some logograms were later borrowed into the Jurchin scripts.

It is possible that the large script also had ideograms for grammatical functions, perhaps syllabograms.

The script evolved during the Liao Empire (916-1125) and survived the fall of this Empire.

The Jurchins wrote in this script until 1191, when it was suppressed by an imperial order.

Nakanishi claims the Kitan script is undeciphered (Nakanishi, p. 96).

Daniels and Bright state: “more monuments would be necessary for the fuller decipherment of this system”, p. 230.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/khitan.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/khitan.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/khitan.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.231-2.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 96.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 049

NAME: Kitan Small Script

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Khitan

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR: Kitan, an Altaic language.

USED WHERE: once used in East Asia, Manchuria.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 916 to 1191 during the Kitan dynasty

ORIGIN: Reputedly created by the Khitan scholar Diela, who was inspired by the Uighur alphabet.

COMMENTS: This script consists of 370 characters.

Used in parallel with the Kitan Large Script.

The two systems did not seem to share any signs in common at all, and ways in which signs were combined and assembled were quite different as well.

Parts of the Kitan scripts were eventually adopted into the Jurchen script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/khitan.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=kitan-s

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/khitan.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Fengzhu, Liu. 1999. Seventy years of Khitan Small Script studies. In Writing in the Altaic World (eds) Juha Janhunen and Volker Rybatzki. pp.159-170.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/textfonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/khitan.html

PROPOSAL STATUS: NO


ID: 050

NAME: Kpelle

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Kpelle, a member of Mande group of Niger-Congo

USED WHERE: Liberia (today 490 000 speakers) and Guinea (today 300 000 speakers)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: During the 1930s-40s.

ORIGIN: The Kpelle syllabary was invented during the 1930s by Chief Gbili of Sanoyea, Liberia.

COMMENTS: 88 graphemes in Kpelle. Today, Kpelle is written using the Latin alphabet.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kpelle.htm BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Dalby, David. 1967. A survey of the indigenous scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone: Vai, Mende, Loma, Kpelle and Bassa. African Language Studies 8:1-51.

Stone, Ruth M. 1990. Ingenious invention: the indigenous Kpelle script in the late twentieth century. Liberian Studies Journal 15(2): 135-144.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/african.html (Jason Glavy)

http://www.worldlanguage.com/Indonesian/Languages/Kpelle.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp.80-81.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 051

NAME: Lahnda

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Lahanda, Jatki script

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Near Modern

USED FOR (language/family): Lahnda (also called Jatki, or Western Punjabi), Indo-Aryan

USED WHERE: Pakistan and (northwestern) India.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C16th (estimate based on Nakanishi notes)

ORIGIN: The original writing for Punjabi and Sindhi.

COMMENTS: Used by Hindu people, Muslim people generally write Lahnda using Urdu script.

Nakanishi quotes: “It is convenient, with only one fault, it is seldom legible to anyone except the original writer” (p.50). The Gurmukhi script was an improvement to the Lahnda script, with reference to the Sanskrit system in order to give exact renderings of the Sikh scriptures.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.travelphrases.info/gallery/Fonts_Urdu.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 44.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 052

NAME: Lanna

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Old Xishuangbanna Dai, Dham, Yuan

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Tai Lue, Khün and Kam Mueang (Gam Muang) (also Old Lao).

USED WHERE: Thailand

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C13th to current

ORIGIN: Descendant of Brahmi. From the Mon script.

COMMENTS: 100 000 speaks of Khün for which Lanna is the sole script in use.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=PCUnicodeDocs&highlight=#d972dd55 (Unicode proposal)

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=lanna

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=PCUnicodeDocs&highlight=#d972dd55

Being encoded now.

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 053

NAME: Lepcha

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Róng

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Lepcha (Róng-Ríng) 65 000 speakers, Tibeto-Burman.

USED WHERE: Sikkim (lies between India and China) Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal and Kalimpong, and also in Nepal and Bhutan.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C17th to current

ORIGIN: Invented by the Lepcha scholar Thikúng Men Salóng in 1720, possibly inspired by Buddhist missionaries (omniglot). Daniels and Bright attribute authorship to Raja Phyag-rdor-rnam-rgyal of the Tibetan dynasty in Sikkim, p. 436.

Based on Tibetan writing with some influence from Burmese script. Exhibits some Chinese influence in that it was formally written in columns from right to left.

COMMENTS: Today the Lepcha script is used in newspapers, magazines, textbooks, collections of poetry, prose and plays.

Lepcha is written from left to right with spaces between words.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lepcha.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.lepcha.info

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 437.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 69.

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/n2947r-lepcha.pdf


ID: 054

NAME: Linear A

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Cretan script

TYPE: Logosyllabary

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Eteo-Cretan/Minoan (still to be identified)

USED WHERE: by the Minoans of Crete

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C18th-C12th BC

ORIGIN: Indigenous. Linear B and Cypriot bear some similarities.

COMMENTS: Undeciphered. The media where the hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared are mostly clay sealstones. About 90 symbols.

Linear A was written in horizontal lines running from left to right, and words are sometimes separated by word dividers.

Corpus of small clay tablets which were probably used for keeping records of transactions.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/lineara.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lineara.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.people.ku.edu/~jyounger/LinearA/fonts/

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lineara.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 055

NAME: Loma

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Loma (141 800 speakers), Niger-Congo

USED WHERE: Loffa County, northwest of Liberia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1930s-40s.

ORIGIN: The Loma syllabary was invented during the 1930s by Wido Zobo of Boneketa, Liberia (Mafundikwa and Omniglot). Similar to other syllabaries in the Mende family of writing systems.

COMMENTS: 185 symbols.

Written from left to right in horizontal lines.

Mostly replaced by the Latin alphabet.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/loma.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/african.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/loma.htm

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp. 77-79.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 056

NAME: Lycian

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Lycian, Indo-European

USED WHERE: Western Anatolia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C6th BC to C2th BC

ORIGIN: borrowed from a Doric variant of the archaic Greek script. More than 80% of the letters can be traced to their Greek prototype. The remaining symbols are either original creations or, less probably, from other writing systems. Resemblance to Luvian (Daniels and Bright, p. 281).

COMMENTS: 29 signs – 6 voewls and 23 consonants and semivowels.

Written left to right.

Use of word dividers is frequent, but by no means consistent.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/n2939-lycian.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.lycianturkey.com/lycian_language.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.rdg.ac.uk/Classics/download/ (for Macintosh)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.lycianturkey.com/lycian_language.htm

http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/n2939-lycian.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 283-4.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 42.

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3019.pdf


ID: 057

NAME: Lydian

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Lydian, Indo-European

USED WHERE: Western Anatolia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C5th BC to C3rd BC

ORIGIN: Related to the Greek alphabet.

COMMENTS: Most examples of Lydian have been found in and around Sardis, the capital of ancient Lydia.

Lydian has 26 symbols, 16 can be traced to a Greek model and the others are local additions. Daniels and Bright note the symbol for “f” shares a remarkable resemblance with the Etruscan alphabet.

Written from right to left with a few inscriptions of left to right. Later texts show exclusively right to left. Use of word dividers is variable.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/n2940-lydian.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=lydian-s

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.myfonts.com:8080/fonts/agfa/lydian-mt

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 283-285.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 42.

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3019.pdf


ID: 058

NAME: Mandaic

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Mandaic ‘Late Aramaic’, Semitic (Classical Mandaic is a direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic. Also the liturgical language used by followers of the Mandaean religion.)

USED WHERE: Iran (approximately 1000 speakers of modern Mandaic)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 250BC to current minority liturgical.

ORIGIN: Derived from Aramaic.

COMMENTS: Mandaic is still used by a Gnostic group in Iraq, Iran and elsewhere (Daniels and Bright, p. 499).

22 letters in Mandaic. Written from right to left.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=MYZ

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=mandaic-s

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mandaic.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.mandaeanworld.com/alphabet.html

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.mandaeanworld.com/alphabet.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mandaic.htm

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.511-12.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 059

NAME: Manichaean

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Iranian languages Middle Persian, Parthian, and Sogdian, Bactrian as well as in the Turkic language Uigur.

USED WHERE: Iran, Turkey.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: possibly invented by Mani (AD 216-277), the founder of Manichaeism (Nakanishi). Daniels and Bright claim it is probably older, p. 530.

ORIGIN: Derived from Aramaic, evolved from Syriac Estrangelo.

COMMENTS: “Late Aramaic” script.

Liturgical use for the Manichaean religion as well as Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, Bactrian, Turkish, and Tokharian.

Script is written from right to left.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/manichaean.pdf

http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2544.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2544.pdf

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 531-33 (Manichean Middle Persian, Manichean Parthian and Manichean Sogdian) and p. 542 (Manichaean of the Uyghurs).

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 44.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 060

NAME: Mayan Hieroglyphs

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Yucatec, Mesoamerican

USED WHERE: Southern Mesoamerica (Mexico and Guatemala)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C4th BC to C16th AD

ORIGIN: Indigenous, possibly borrowed from earlier scripts in the region that lies to the west of their highland homeland. Early forms of Zapotecan and Zoquean were contemporaneous with Mayan writing during some portion of their existence.

COMMENTS: The script was usually written in paired vertical columns reading from left to right and top to bottom in a zigzag pattern.

650-700 characters, with no more than 400 used at any one time.

“Not completely deciphered” (Daniels and Bright, p. 175).

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/maya.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mayan.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://babel.uoregon.edu/yamada/fonts/egyptian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/maya.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 175-179.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 109.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 061

NAME: Mende

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Ki-Ka-Ku

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Mende, Niger-Congo

USED WHERE: Sierra Leone

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1920s-40s

ORIGIN: Indigenous. Originated with the teacher of Kisimi Kamala (ca. 1890-1962). Kamala fully developed the script. Some symbols look like Vai characters.

COMMENTS: 195 symbols. Written from right to left in horizontal lines.

Still in use by 100 people.

Mende is used for correspondence and record keeping, especially accounting.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=MFY

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mende.htm

http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=mende-kikakui

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/african.html (Jason Glavy)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp. 70-73.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 062

NAME: Meroitic

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Meroitic, Egyptian (possibly used to write the Nubian languages although no texts have survived – Daniels and Bright, p. 85).

USED WHERE: Nile Valley the ancient Nubian city of Meroë (Modern northern Sudan)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C3nd BC to circa C4th AD (Nakanishi asserts it was used circa C8th BC).

ORIGIN: Derived from Egyptian.

COMMENTS: The language itself remains in the main undeciphered.

There are two major script variants, a cursive or linear version for general use, based on Egyptian Demotic; and a pictorial “hieroglyphic” lapidary style for monumental purposes on temple walls and other royal monuments. This latter style was based on Egyptian hieroglyphs. Meroitic writing is written from right to left and occasionally, the hieroglyphic signs were written in columns from top to bottom.

15 consonant symbols, three vowel symbols and a symbol to indicate the presence of the initial vowel.

Displaced with the adoption of the Coptic alphabet in C6th.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/meroitic.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/meroitic.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Griffith, F. 1911. Karanog: The Meroitic Inscriptions of Shablul and Karanog. Philadelphia: University Museum.

______. 1912. Meroitic Inscriptions II. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://finanz.math.tu-graz.ac.at/~kainhofer/rk_fonts

http://www.valdyas.org/conlang.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 85-6.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 104. (only shows one form, unnamed)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 063

NAME: Methei

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Manipuri, Meetei

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script (some newspapers in modern Assam are in Manipuri script – Nakanishi, p.47).

USED FOR (language/family): Manipuri (Meiteilon), Tibeto-Burman

USED WHERE: Manipur State, India (the Manipuri language is also spoken in Bangladesh and Myanmar)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C14th-C18th

ORIGIN: Similar to Devanagari (the original writing for the Manipuri language)

COMMENTS: The letters in Meetei Mayek are named after parts of human body.

The Manipur Government has decided to introduce Manipuri script, Meitei Mayek, in standard one and two of educational institutions from the next academic session.

Manipuri is written from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.unicode.org/Public/TEXT/UTR-3.TXT

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/holnus/004200505170311.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/manipuri.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. 3, pt. 3., Bombay, 1898

http://www.e-pao.net - Online newspaper in English and Manipuri.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.pouri.org/fonthelp.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 69.

http://www.arbornet.org/~prava/eeyek/script/

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3158.pdf


ID: 064

NAME: Modi

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Near Modern or living minority script. Daniels and Bright claim that Modi is “still used for private letter writing by some”, p. 774.

USED FOR (language/family): Marathi, Indo-Aryan

USED WHERE: central Indian state of Maharashtra

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C17th to C20th

ORIGIN: Derived from Brahmi. Modi is the original script for the Marathi language.

COMMENTS: It originated as a cursive variant of the Devanagari script during the 17th century CE. Modi was used until the 1950’s when Devanagari replaced it as the written medium of the Marathi language.

The script is bound by one line above the figures (Nakanishi).

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/modi.html

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/modi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://marathimodi.tripod.com/

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/modi.html

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 065

NAME: Moon script

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Moon Type, Moon Code, Moon System, Moon Alphabet, Moon

TYPE: alphabet

STATUS: artificial script

USED FOR (language/family): Adapted to 400+ languages.

USED WHERE: International.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1847 to current

ORIGIN: Derived from the Latin alphabet.

COMMENTS: Devised by Dr William Moon (1818-1894)

An ‘embossed reading’ raised line system, a sign system designed to be perceived tactually, made up of linear elements.

It is particularly suited to introducing the newly-blind adult to the art of reading by touch: many adult readers, having acquired confidence and a sense of achievement by learning Moon, gradually move to the more comprehensive braille system.

The script is made up of 14 characters and 12 other types used for contractions and punctuation. The type is set by hand. There are about 900 letters and space in a Moon page measuring 12 inches by 10 inches, and these can be set by an experienced typesetter in half an hour. The paper is moistened before printing to take the embossing without splitting, and after printing the pages pass through a mechanical gas-heated drier.

From 1923, Moon has been printed direct from type.

Since the 1990s there has been a revival of interest in the Moon script. There are currently about 400 people in the United Kingdom who are still reading Moon books and magazines (“Moon users”).

The Moon Script may be known as “Raised Lines” by users.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.deafblind.com/moon.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.visugate.org/bjvi/1989/spring1989.html

http://www.euroblind.org/fichiersGBbis/R.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon_type

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/moon.htm

http://www.scip.org.uk/moon/homepage.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Tobin, M.J. and Hill, Eileen W. (1984), A Moon-Writer, The New Beacon, LXVllI, 801, 173-176.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/moon.htm

http://www.deafblind.com/moon.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 066

NAME: Myanmar extensions

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Burmese

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Myanmar/Burmese (21 million speakers), Sino-Tibetan, Karen languages (4 million speakers) and Mon (200 000 speakers), Austonesian

USED WHERE: Myanmar and Thailand

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C11th to contemporary

ORIGIN: Adapted from the Mon script and descended from Brahmi.

Daniels and Bright claim: “Several other scripts closely resemble the Burmese, including the Tai Yai script, which is the most widely used for the Shan language. […] Some Karen scripts devised in more recent times are explicitly modelled on Burmese”, p. 450.

COMMENTS: Runs horizontally from left to right with no space between the words, only phrases. Two short perpendicular lines mark the end of a sentence, borrowed from Indic scripts.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 72.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/burmese.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.faxtoon.com/docs/bur_font/bur_font.htm

http://www.nandawon.demon.co.uk/burmese-fonts

http://www.seasite.niu.edu/seasite.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/burmese.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS: In progress. Proposed by Ireland (NSAI), United Kingdom (BSI), Myanmar Language Commission, Myanmar Unicode and Natural Language Processing Research Center, Myanmar Computer Federation. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3043.pdf


ID: 067

NAME: Nabataean

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Nabataean Aramaic

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Nabatean (local dialect of Middle Aramaic), Old Arabic (occasionally), Semitic

USED WHERE: Examples found in Petra, Damascus and Medina. Nabatae was in northwestern Arabia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 150 BC to C5th BC

ORIGIN: Aramaic script.

COMMENTS: Written from right to left in horizontal lines. During the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Nabataean abjad evolved into the Arabic script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=nabatean-s

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nabataean.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://journalofbiblicalstudies.org/Links/fonts.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 97.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 43.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 068

NAME: Naxi Geba

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Naxi (alt. names – Nashi, Nasi, Nakhi, Lomi, Mu, Moso, Mosso, Mo-Su), Sino-Tibetan (or Burmese-Lolo)

USED WHERE: Yunnan (250,000 speakers), China, Sichuan, Tibet and possibly in Myanmar. (278 000 modern speakers in total).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN: Indigenous

COMMENTS: Written in horizontal lines running from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://unicode.org/~rscook/Naxi/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/naxi.html http://www.omniglot.com/writing/naxi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/naxi.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 069

NAME: Naxi Tomba

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Naxi Dongba, Naxi Dto-mba

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script – mainly liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Naxi (alt. names – Nashi, Nasi, Nakhi, Lomi, Mu, Moso, Mosso, Mo-Su), Sino-Tibetan (or Burmese-Lolo).

USED WHERE: Yunnan (250,000 speakers), China, Sichuan, Tibet and possibly in Myanmar.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C13th to contemporary.

ORIGIN: Indigenous

COMMENTS: Liturgical script. It is used exclusively by the Dongba (shamans/priests) as an aid to the recitation of ritual texts during religious ceremonies and shamanistic rituals.

Use of the Naxi language and script was discouraged after the Communist victory in 1949, and they were actively suppressed during the Cultural Revolution in the 60s when thousands of manuscripts were destroyed.

Today only a handful of people can read and write the dongba script, and all of them are over 70, though efforts are being made to preserve the script and a number of students are learning it.

A newspaper was published during the 1980s printed in the Dongba script and the Latin alphabet in an attempt to increase the level of literacy among the Naxi people in their own language. Over 30 books were also published. There efforts were successful at first - in 1982, 200 people could read Naxi in the Latin alphabet. By 1985, 1,700 could do so. Unfortunately the Chinese government phased out Naxi language teaching in the late 80s.

Contains about 1400 symbols.

(omniglot)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.unicode.org/~rscook/Naxi/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/naxi.html http://www.omniglot.com/writing/naxi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/naxi.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 070

NAME: New Tai Lue

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Lue, Tai-Kadai

USED WHERE: Tai Lu is a Thai tribe in southern Yunnan, China (also Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1950s to current

ORIGIN: New Tai Lue is based on the Old (Traditional) Tai Lue script. Similar to Lao (Nakanishi).

COMMENTS: Used by 700 000 speakers of Tai Lue

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

http://www.sil.org/computing/fonts/SILDB/uguide.pdf#search='New%20Tai%20Lue'

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tailue.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.sil.org/computing/fonts/sildb

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 98.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 071

NAME: Newari

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Ranjana script, Kutila, Lantsa (Tibet)

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Newari, Tibeto-Burman.

USED WHERE: Nepal and India

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C11th to current (minority)

ORIGIN: Derived from Brahmi. Exhibits similarities to Devangari.

COMMENTS: Newari decreased inusage during the C20th and the Newari language is now mainly written using the Devangari alphabet. Also used for writing Sanskrit translated into Tibetan. Also used for decorative and ceremonial purposes (including in China, Mongolia and Japan).

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newari_script

http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=NEW

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ranjana.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.nepalnews.com.np/kantipur_font.htm

http://www.jwajalapa.com/download.html

http://www.geocities.com/ranjanafont/ranjanafont.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/tai/newari.pdf

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 072

NAME: N’Ko

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Mande languages – Mandekan (Manding or Mandingo), Maninka (Malinke), Bambara, Dioula (Dyula) and their dialects, Niger-Congo. (or Nilo-Saharan) 5 million speakers.

USED WHERE: West Africa ( including Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, The Gambia, Mali, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1949 to current

ORIGIN: Created by Guinean scholar Souleymane Kanté of Kankan circa 1949.

COMMENTS: Translates as “I say” in all Manding dialects.

N’Ko is written from right to left. It was designed to accurately transcribe African tonal languages with special attention to tones that cannot be transcribed with the Latin alphabet.

18 consonants and 7 vowels.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://home.gwu.edu/~cwme/Nko/Nkohome.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%27ko

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nko.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.nkoinstitute.com

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.nkoinstitute.com

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://home.gwu.edu/~cwme/Nko/alpha.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nko.htm

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. p. 131.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 073

NAME: North Arabic

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): dialects of Ancient North Arabian, Proto-Semitic

USED WHERE: North-Eastern Arabia - Hirah, Anbar and Hijaz

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C4th-C6th

ORIGIN: Directly related to the Nabatean Aramaic script.

COMMENTS: Arabic script of the Qur’an.

“Well over forty thousand of these texts have been discovered so far and it is known that scores remain to be recorded. However, approximately percent of these are graffiti, informal inscriptions the majority of which consist only of names” (Woodard, p.490). Therefore, these inscriptions don’t necessarily depict the evolution of the script, but represent individual styles.

In common with Semitic alphabets, the letters represent consonants only. Doubled consonants are usually expressed as a single letter.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_calligraphy

http://www.sakkal.com/ArtArabicCalligraphy.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Abbott, N.: The Rise of the North-Arabic Script and its Koranic Development, Chicago, 1939, p. 39

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 491 and p. 496.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 074

NAME: Numidian

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Libyan, Libyco-Berber

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Numidian (a Berber dialect), Afro-Asiatic

USED WHERE: Historical Numidia, North Africa (modern Algeria)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C2nd BC

ORIGIN: Derived from the Punic script. The script resembles the Tifinigh (or Tifinagh “punic letters”) alphabet that is now used among the Tuareg.

COMMENTS: Numidian was normally written from bottom to top, in columns from

left to right. In some bilingual Numidian and Punic inscriptions, the Numidian parts were written from right to left horizontally in the Punic manner.

A corpus of over 1100 inscriptions, found in Tunesia, Algeria and Morocco. *Tifinagh – contemporary

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://sunsite.lanet.lv/ftp/mirror/unicode/TEXT/UTR-3.TXT

http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/unicodeTR3.html

http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=XNUM

http://www.akkuaria.net/enigmaemisteri/david.htm

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ankhonline.com/ecriture1.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 114.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 075

NAME: Nushu (Nu Shu)

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Sinitic

USED WHERE: Jiangyong county of south eastern Hunan province, China

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C15th to present

ORIGIN: Chinese, Indigenous. (related to Hanzi)

COMMENTS: ‘Nu Shu’ translates as ‘women’s writing’. Created and used exclusively by women.

The Nushu script consists of between 1000 and 1500 characters, many of which are variant forms.

Related to Chinese but more of a cursive style.

Like Chinese, Nushu is written from top to bottom in columns, and the columns are written from right to left.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/nushu.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nushu.htm

http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/~orie/home.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: http://www.lisasee.com/onwriting.htm

Lin-Lee Lee. 2002. Creating a female language: symbolic transformation embedded in Nushu. Chinese communication studies : contexts and comparisons. Ed. by Xing Lu, Wenshan Jia, and D. Ray Heisey. Westport, CT : Ablex Pub.

Zhao, Liming. 1998. Nushu: Chinese Women's Characters. International

Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1998, 129, 127-137

Silber, Cathy Lyn. 1996. Nushu (Chinese Women's Script) Literacy and Literature. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 1996, 56, 12, June, 4779-A

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nushu.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 076

NAME: Ol Chiki

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Ol, Ol Ciki, Ol Cemet’, Santali script

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Santali (Santhali), Munda (5.8 million speakers), Austro-Asiatic

USED WHERE: Mayurbhanj district of the Indian state of Orissa.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1920s to current

ORIGIN: Indigenous (based on signs and symbols long familiar to the Santal people).

COMMENTS: Ol Chiki created in the 1920s by Pandit Raghunath Murmu as part of his efforts to promote Santali culture.

Santali is also written with the Oriya, Bengali, Devangari and Latin alphabets. Raghunath devised and advertised the script as “easy to learn” as compared with Santali written in these other scripts, which he called Ol Urum ‘dusty’, i.e. superannuated writing.

48 characters in Ol Cemet’.

Daniels and Bright claim that Ol Cemet’ hs become increasingly accepted, despite the popularity and competition of Devangari, Oriya, etc. Various Santal organizations have tried to promote the script for other languages of Chota Nagpur, mostly Munda languages, but for the Dravidian Kudux as well, with varied success.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press., pp.614-5.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/santali.htm

http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=SNT

http://www.rosettaproject.org:8080/live/search/detailedlanguagerecord?ethnocode=SNT

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://wesanthals.tripod.com/id27.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/santali.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2505.pdf


ID: 077

NAME: Old Permic

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Abur, Altsyrjänisch, Permisch, Vanapermi, Drevnepermskij, Ol d-Permian, Old Komi.

TYPE: Alphabet

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Komi (360 000 speakers) and Komi Permyak, Uralic

USED WHERE: (formally) Komi Republic of European Russia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: late C14th to C17th.

ORIGIN: Modelled on the Greek and Cyrillic scripts. Many of the glyphs resemble the Komi religious ‘Tamga signs’.

COMMENTS: Created by the Russian missionary St Stefan of Perm (1373- 1395).

28 characters in Old Permic.

Komi is now written with Cyrillic.

Old Permic only in current use for scholarly purposes.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n1947.pdf#search='old%20permic%20script'

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 700.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/oldpermic.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.peoples.org.ru/eng_font.html (Abur Old Permic and Komi)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/oldpermic.htm (based on fonts from http://www.everson.com )

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 078

NAME: Orkhon

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Kokturk, Kök Turki, Gokturk, Gök-Turk, Kök-Turk Alphabet/Orkhon or Turkic runes

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Uyghur (Uighur)

USED WHERE: pre-Islamic Turkic people in northern China (particularly in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, by about 6,750,000 people)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 715 to 800 AD (early Uyghur empire)

ORIGIN: Derived from or inspired by the Sogdian script. Developed by the Goturks. The characters bear a resemblance to the Germanic Runic alphabet, possibly due to the inscription techniques used. It has distant cognates in the various runiform alphabets found in the Talas Valley in western Turkestan, and in southeastern Europe.

COMMENTS: The earliest known Old Turkic script. Examples located in the Orkhon river valley in Mongolia in the C19th.

Inscriptions dating from the later 8th century AD in a slight variant of the Orkhon alphabet, known as Yenisei or Siberian runes, have also been found around Yenisei and other parts of Siberia. (omniglot)

Written mainly from right to left in horizontal lines, though some inscriptions are written vertically with the letters rotated by 90°. When written vertically, it read from bottom to top and right to left. (omniglot)

Orkhon was replaced by the Uighur alphabet (developed from the cursive version of Sogdian) by the C9th.

About 40 characters.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 536-39.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/orkhon.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkhon_script

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.tonyukuk.com/Orkun.ttf

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/orkhon.htm

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 537.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 96.

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3164.pdf


ID: 079

NAME: Pahawh Hmong

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Miao

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script (confirmed by Nakanishi, p.84 and Daniels and Bright, p. 623)

USED FOR (language/family): Hmong (5.5 million speakers in China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Australia and the US), Austro-Tai

USED WHERE: Laos and Vietnam (contemporarily used by a minority in Asia, Europe, Australia and America in Hmong enclaves.)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1959 to current

ORIGIN: The Pahawh Hmong script was devised by Shong Lue Yang (known as the “mother of writing”) in 1959 and developed until 1971, with three main versions of the script.

COMMENTS: 164 characters. Writing direction is left to right.

In China Hmong is known as Miao and is written with Chinese characters or with an alphabet known as Pollard Miao. In Thailand, it is written with the Thai alphabet. During the 1980s and 1990s several other alphabets were invented to write Hmong: Ntawv Paj Ntaub, based on Thai letters and Chinese characters, and Ai Ao Lo.

Today most Hmong write their language with the Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), a version of the Latin alphabet developed in the 1950s, mainly by William Smalley, a missionary linguist. Limited access to the equipment necessary to produce the script, lack of adequate published materials, and association of the script with a movement of political resistance in Laos have kept Pahawh Hmong from supplementing RPA. However, Pahawh Hmong is a source of cultural pride for the Hmong people.

Shong Lue Yang also developed a writing system for the Khmu language but this script has not been preserved.

Hmong is an isolating language and Pahawh Hmong employs spaces to separate morphemes. Punctuation marks are modeled on Western writing conventions.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 619-624.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

http://www.linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/research/projects/hmong/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/topic_complete.jsp?tm=i18n.ltm&id=pahawh-hmong

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.hmongnet.org/hmongfonts

http://babel.uoregon.edu/yamada/fonts/hmong.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/hmong.htm

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 620-624.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 080

NAME: Palmyrene

ALTERNAME NAME(S): Palmyran

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Palmyrene, local dialect of Middle Aramaic.

USED WHERE: Syria (the ancient city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 250 BC to 250 AD

ORIGIN: Derived from Aramaic. (similar to Hebrew and Syriac).

COMMENTS: Palmyrene inscriptions have been found in Palmyra, Palestine, and Egypt and elsewhere in North Africa and from as far afield as the Black Sea coast, Hungary, Italy, and England. The earliest surviving Palmyrene inscription dates from 44 BC; the last dates from AD 274. (Encylopaedia Britannica).

22 characters. Written from right to left.

Partly deciphered by Abbé Jean-Jacques Barthélemy.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=palmyran-s

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 145.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: The importance of the Palmyrene script for our knowledge of the development of the late Aramaic scripts. In: M. Sokoloff (ed.), Arameans, Aramaic and the Aramaic literary tradition. Bar-Ilan Studiesin Near Eastern Languages and Culture. Ramat-Gan : Bar- Ilan University Press 1983, p.57-74.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 97.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 43. (sample from C3rd).

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 081

NAME: Phoenician

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE:

STATUS:

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE:

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN: The basis of Western alphabets.

COMMENTS: 22 letters. *SKIP: nearly encoded

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 41.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 082

NAME: Pollard Phonetic

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Pollard Miao

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script (adapted to a dozen languages of Southeast Asia)

USED FOR (language/family): A-Hmao or Ta Hwa Miao, a dialect of Miao (today it is Western Hmong) (5.5 million speakers in China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Australia and the US), Austro-Tai

USED WHERE: Yunnan province, southwest China and the Hunan province.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C20th to contemporary

ORIGIN: Developed in 1905 by British Methodist missionary Samuel Pollard (1864-1915), with assistance from Yang Yage and Li Shitifan. Stabilised in 1936 with the translation of the New Testament into the Pollard Miao script.

COMMENTS: Various efforts have been made to improve Pollard Miao writing, which inadequately represents the phonetics and tones of A-Hmao and is not ideal for writing Chinese loan words. A semi-official ‘reformed’ Pollard script has been in use since 1988, along with the older version of the script, and the pīnyīn version. (omniglot)

In Vietnam, Laos and Thailand, Hmong is written with either the Pahawh Hmong script or the Latin alphabet.

Daniels and Bright claim the Pollard script was influenced by the Cree script., p. 599.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 580-81.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/pollardmiao.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.archives.esc.soton.ac.uk/miao/WritingMiao/WritingMiao.htm#font

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 97. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/pollardmiao.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 083

NAME: Proto-Elamite

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Logosyllabary

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Undeciphered Elamite (Phonological structure unknown).

USED WHERE: Suse (Susa), the capital of Elam, Elamic district, in south-western Persia (modern Iran).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C4th BC to C3rd BC.

ORIGIN: Probably developed from early Sumerian script. Some graphic and semantic connections between Proto-Elamite and proto-cuneiform (the latter predating Proto-Elamite by 100 years).

COMMENTS: About 1000 individual characters. Proto-Elamite documents were written in a linearized script from right to left, in lines from top to bottom.

Some 1600 Proto-Elamaite tablets have been published (most from Susa, others from southern ans eastern Iran). The tablets are administrative documents, to the near total exlusion of either literary or lexical texts.

Precedes Old Elamite. The first tablets in Proto-Elamite are slightly later than proto-Cuneiform. Contemporary with Uruk.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Englund, Robert K. In Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 160-64.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/elamite.htm

http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=proto-elamite

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Khačikjan, Margaret: The Elamite Language, Documenta Asiana IV, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 1998 ISBN 8887345015.

FONTS AVAILABLE: developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/elamite.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 40.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 084

NAME: Pyu

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Tircil

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Pyu, Tibeto-Burman

USED WHERE: Found in Ayeyarwady Valley, Myanmar (ancient Burma).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C7th to C12th

ORIGIN: The Pyu script resembles that Kadamba script of southern India.

COMMENTS: Most of what we do know of the Pyu is extrapolated from archeological excavations, surface finds and scant references in Chinese Dynastic Histories. Additional but very limited information is found in the few inscriptions on burial urns that typically state the names and reignal dates of early rulers and in the formulaic inscriptions on Buddhist votive tablets. None of these sources yields detailed information about the Pyu people or their culture. In fact, it wasn’t until 1911 that the Pyu language could be read. This was the result of the translation of the Myazedi Inscription, the Burmese “rosetta” stone. This quadrilingual inscription, written in the Pyu, Mon, Burmese, and Pali languages, was erected before the (Buddhist) Myinkaba Kubyauk-gyi Temple at Pagan in 1113 AD (from http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/Cooler/Chapter_2/Chapter_2.htm )

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/burmese/Cooler/Chapter_2/Chapter_2.htm http://www.mcf.org.mm/unicode/doc/1994_history_of_myanmar_alphabet.pdf#search='pyu%20script'

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 80. (part of the Myazedi inscription).

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 085

NAME: Rejang

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Redjang, Kaganga

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Rejang or Redjang (1 million speakers), Austronesian

USED WHERE: southeast Sumatra, Indonesia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C18th to current

ORIGIN: Derived from the Javanese script Old Kawi, descended from Brahmi.

COMMENTS: 23 consonants and 13 diacritics to suppress or change the inherent vowel.

The Redjang alphabet is used mainly to write magic spells and medical incantations and some poetry. (omniglot)

Some examples have been cut into bamboo and bark.

Revealing its underlying Indic origins, Kaganga derives its name from its first three syllables: ‘ka’, ‘ga’, ‘nga’.

At times, texts set in Kaganga are called ‘Aksara Kaganga’.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

http://www.monotypefonts.com/Library/Non-Latin-Library.asp?show=sample&lan=kaganga

Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 474-6.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/redjang.htm

http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=rejang-s

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.monotypeimaging.com/isv/worldtype_catalogue.asp (font may be purchased through this provider).

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/redjang.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 81.

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3023.pdf


ID: 086

NAME: Rongo Rongo

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Rapanui script

TYPE: Logosyllabic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Rapanui (2500 speakers), Polynesian

USED WHERE: Rapanui, southeastern Pacific (Easter Island)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1770s to the 1860s

ORIGIN: Indigenous, undeciphered.

COMMENTS: “Rongo Rongo” translates as ‘recitation’.

Only 26 authentic Rongo Rongo inscription examples in existence.

There are over 14,000 glyphs in the entire rongorongo corpus.

The Rongorongo script consists of about 120 symbols, mainly representations of birds, fish, gods, plants and a variety of geometric shapes. Four symbols, and possibly more, undergo the loss of many of their elements when combined with other symbols.

The tablets are read left to right, from bottom to top.

Most modern Easter Islanders write in Spanish or Rapanui using the Latin alphabet.

Ta'u (6 texts in existence) and Mama (2 texts in existence) are two other undeciphered scripts that have been found on Easter Island.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Macri, Martha J. Rongorongo of Easter Island. In Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 183-88.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/rongorongo.htm

http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/fischer.html

http://rongorongo.chat.ru/index.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Fischer, Steven Roger, 1997. Rongorongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics 14. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.deniart.com/rongo.shtml (can be purchased online).

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/rongorongo.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 110.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 087

NAME: Samaritan

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Old Hebrew, ketab ibri

TYPE: Abjad

STATUS: Living minority script – liturgical (confirmed by Daniels and Bright, p. 487).

USED FOR (language/family): Samaritan (dialect of late Aramaic), Semitic

USED WHERE: Ancient Israel, Samaria.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 50 BC to current (minority/liturgical). The Samaritan language fell out of common use by C12th.

ORIGIN: Derived from Hebrew, from Phoenician.

COMMENTS: The Samaritan alphabet is still used by a few Samaritans in the city of Nablus and in the Samaritan quarter of Holon. (omniglot)

The Samaritan script is preserved in Biblical scrolls, mezuzahs, amulets, and a even bi-

weekly newspaper. The script is also used by American freemasons.

Approximately 700 Samaritans today.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 487-8.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

http://www.orindalodge.org/fonts/kadosh_samaritan_manual_1_10.pdf

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=samaritan

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/samaritan.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Healey, John F. (1991). The early alphabet. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://members.tripod.com/~osher_2/script.htm

http://www.orindalodge.org/kadoshsamaritan.php (font by Shawn Eyer shawn@orindalodge.org. The letters are based on those found in the Masonic writings of A Albert Pike, 1809-1891).

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/samaritan.htm

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 42.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 088

NAME: Satavahana

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Saatavaahana, SaatakarNis, Andhra

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Maharashtri. Prakrit, Sanskrit, Telegu.

USED WHERE: Southern and Central India

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C1st BC to C3rd AD

ORIGIN: Brahmi

COMMENTS: Most sources seem to support that Satavahana people spoke the Prakrit language and used a Brahmic script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana

http://www.grohol.com/wiki/Marathi

http://www.asiaonclick.com/india/history/history3.php

http://forumhub.mayyam.com/expr/19280.29644.16.47.51.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Sarma, I.K. Coinage of the Satavahana empire, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi, 1980.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.owlsoup.com/foamtrain/fonts.html ($15 to purchase)

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 68.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 089

NAME: Saurashtra

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Soruth, Sorath

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script. (attempts at revitalization by Purists).

USED FOR (language/family): Saurashta, closely related to Gujarati (310 000 speakers in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh, particularly in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities. ), Indo-Aryan.

USED WHERE: Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, (now the Gujarat state of India.)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: late C19th to current

ORIGIN: Derived from Brahmi, Similar to Devangari and Tamil.

COMMENTS: 79 characters.

Currently, a slightly modified Tamil script is most commonly used (Telugu and Devangari have also been used to write Saurashtra).

A monthly magazine called Bha¯s. a¯bhima¯ni is published in Madurai, India.

Unfortunately, all literary pieces barring a few modern ones have been irretrievably lost. This language is not taught in schools and hence has been confined to being merely a spoken language.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: see proposal. http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=SAZ

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sourashtra.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saurashtra_language#Writing_System

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: see http://www.xenotypetech.com/osxSaurashtra.html

Norihiko Uchida, Language of the Saurashtrans in Tirupati.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.xenotypetech.com/osxSaurashtra.html

http://www.palkar.org

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS: Approved. http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2607.pdf


ID: 090

NAME: Sharada

ALTERNATE NAME(S): (Shada, Sarada, Śārāda)

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living Minority script – Near Modern – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Kashmiri, Sanskrit and a number of other languages in the northwest of India, the Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and in parts of Central Asia.

USED WHERE: South Asia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: popular usage - C8th to C14th. Modern liturgical usage.

ORIGIN: Derived from Brahmi. Is related to Devangari.

COMMENTS: The earliest known inscription in the Sharda alphabet dates from 774 AD and was discovered in a village called Hund in the west of Pakistan.

Today only a small group of Brahmins continue to use the Sharda alphabet for writing and calculating astrological and ritual formulations. (omniglot)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://ancientscripts.com/sarada.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sharda.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://koshur.org/contents.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://ancientscripts.com/sarada.html

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sharda.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 091

NAME: Siddham

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Bonji in Japanese, Siddhamātrkā, Nagari

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Sanskrit, Indo-European

USED WHERE: South India, Japan, China and Korea

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Introduced to Japan in the early C9th. Resurgence of use during the C20th in Japan.

ORIGIN: Descendent of the Brahmi script via the Gupta script. Devangari derived from Siddham.

COMMENTS: The calligraphic representation of the Siddham script is mainly used by Buddhists in China and Korea and by Shingon Buddhists in Japan to write out mantra, bīja and sutras in Sanskrit.

Written from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 244-47.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/siddham.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddham

http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/unicodeTR3.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Stevens, John. Sacred Calligraphy of the East.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.mojikyo.org/html/abroad/download.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 246.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 092

NAME: Sorang Sompeng

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living Minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Sora (273 911 speakers), a Munda language

USED WHERE: Indian states of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Assam.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Developed in 1936 to current

ORIGIN: Indigenous, developed by Mangei Gomango. The general shapes of the characters resemble English cursive letter shapes. Perhaps the shapes were influenced by the Telugu script.

COMMENTS: Sora has also been written with Latin, Telugu and Oriya scripts.

The script is used in primary and adult education and in various publications.

24 characters in the script.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 612-14.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sorangsompeng.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SAMPLE SCRIPT: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/sorangsompeng.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 093

NAME: South Arabian

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE:

STATUS:

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE:

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: *SKIP

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SAMPLE SCRIPT:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 094

NAME: Soyombo

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Mongolian, Tibetan and Sanskrit

USED WHERE: Mongolia, Tibet

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Developed in 1686 to current liturgical.

ORIGIN: Based on Devangari and modelled on the Lantsha script.

COMMENTS: Created by Bogdo Zanabazar in 1686.

Soyombo is used mainly for inscriptions on prayer wheels and temples.

The first character of the script became the national symbol of Mongolia and as such it can be found on the national flag, money, official documents, official stamps, and many other items.

Written horizontally from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyombo_script

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/soyombo.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/asian.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/soyombo.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 095

NAME: Sumero-Akkadian Cuneiform

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE:

STATUS:

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE:

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: *SKIP ENCODED

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 096

NAME: Sundanese

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Sundanese (Sunda, Priangan) (27 million speakers), Austronesian

USED WHERE: West Java (and Bali), Indonesia

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: ? to current.

ORIGIN: Descendent of the Brahmi script.

COMMENTS: Sudanese is most popularly written using the Latin script. The Pegon/Jawi script was also previously used for Sundanese.

The Sundanese people are the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3033.pdf

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.iridis.com/Sundanese_language

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Mikihiro Moriyama. 1996. Discovering the ‘language’ and ‘literature’ of West Java : an introduction to the formation of Sundanese writing in 19th century West Java. Southeast Asian Studies. 1 Vol 34. literacy in nineteenth century West Java’,

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.languagesource.com/acatalog/Online_Catalogue_Sundanese____TransRoman_Fonts_2928.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/sundanese.pdf

PROPOSAL STATUS: http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3033.pdf


ID: 097

NAME: Sutton SignWriting

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Living minority script – artificial

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE: International, used in 18 countries.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1974 to current.

ORIGIN: Created in 1974 by Valerie Sutton.

COMMENTS: Written form of 27 sign languages.

It uses visual symbols to represent the handshapes, movements, and facial expressions of signed languages.

SignWriting is based on Sutton DanceWriting, a movement notation system for representing dance movements which Valerie Sutton developed in 1972.

There are newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, and literature written in SignWriting.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://signwriting.org

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/signwriting.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: mailto:DAC@SignWriting.org – contact email to arrange publishing of Sutton SignWriting.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.signwriting.com/

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/signwriting.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 098

NAME: Takri

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Near Modern or Living minority script (small revival movement in the Kashtawar area for Kashtawari).

USED FOR (language/family): Kashtawari, Sirmauri (14,542 speakers as of 1971 census) and Dogri, Indo-European.

USED WHERE: Western regions of the Himalayas.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: Primarily during C18th to C20th. There is currently a revival movement of the Takri script.

ORIGIN: Derived from the Sarada script, from the Brahmi script. (The Dogra Akhar and Lande scripts are based on the Takri script.)

COMMENTS: Takri was widely replaced by Devangari in the 1940s. However, there is a current movement to revive usage of the script.

The script was revived by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in late 1800s, who passed an order to fine all those who did not use the script.

Takri does not have much literature and was mainly used for official communications and maintaining ledger books.

(from http://www.expressindia.com/kashmir/full_story.php?content_id=47004&type=ei)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ancientscripts.com/takri.html

http://www.ethnologue.com/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.koausa.org/SpokenKashmiri/Introduction

http://www.dailyexcelsior.com/web1/04mar25/edit.htm

http://www.expressindia.com/kashmir/full_story.php?content_id=47004&type=ei

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html ?

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/takri.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 099

NAME: Tangut

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Xixia, Hsihsia, Tangut

TYPE: Ideographic

STATUS: Historical – liturgical (used for the translation of Buddhist texts from Sanskrit and other languages).

USED FOR (language/family): Tangut (extinct Sino-Tibetan)

USED WHERE: Tangut (Xīxià) kingdom in China (the modern north western provinces of Gansu and Shenxi).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1036 until late C16th.

ORIGIN: Based on the Khitan script (impressionistically based on the appearance of Chinese characters).

COMMENTS: Partly undeciphered. Pronunciation unknown.

The script was probably devised by “Teacher Iri” (Yělì Rèn-yóng) under the Imperial mandate of the Emperor Lǐ Yuán-hào 1003-1047). The script remained in usage after the fall of the Tangut state, since the Tangut language was still the language of Buddhist texts.

5,910 characters in the Tangut script, mapping DB has 6,217 forms total, including duplicates and unified variants.

The Tangut language has also been written using the Tibetan script for liturgical purposes.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~rscook/UTC/Tangut/ http://www.unicode.org/~rscook/Xixia/

SECONDARY REFERENCES: Kychanov, E. I. In Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 228-230. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tangut.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangut http://digilander.libero.it/chinesedep/Abs%20tutti%2052-60.html#sofronov

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Grinstead, Eric D. 1972. Analysis of the Tangut Script. Lund, Studentlitteratur. ISBN: 9144091915.

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.mojikyo.org

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tangut.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS: Submitted


ID: 100

NAME: Tengwar

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Elvish, Tiw, Fëanorian letters

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Artificial script

USED FOR (language/family): ‘Middle-Earth’ created languages, including: Quenya (High Elven – based on Finnish, Greek and Latin), Sindarin (Sindar – based on Welsh and originally called Gnomish), Sylvan, Westron (all from the Elvish language family) and also English, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Swedish, Polish, Esperanto and a number of other languages.

USED WHERE: Fictitious ‘Middle Earth’ from Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: The Annals of Aman (in Morgoth's Ring, volume 10 of The History of Middle-earth) even gives us precise datings for the invention of the tengwar. Rúmil originally devised them in 1179 YT, and Fëanor devised his improved system in 1250 YT. In our terms, then, they were invented about 3,075 years before the beginning of the First Age, and the Fëanorian version appeared some 680 years later. From: (http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/default.asp?url=http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/t/tengwar.html )

ORIGIN: An artificial script created by author J. R. R. Tolkien. Within Tolkien’s works, Tengwar was devised in Valinor during the Years of the Trees and was invented by Rúmil and developed by Fëanor.

COMMENTS: Resembles Tibetan and is derived from the Brahmi script.

Tengwar are written from left to right in horizontal lines while numerals are written from right to left.

Tengwar is written is a number of different ways known as ‘modes’ (orthography).

Tengwar is Quenya for “letters”.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.elvish.org

http://www.evertype.com/standards/csur/tengwar.html

http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/default.asp?url=http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/t/tengwar.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar_eng.htm (Tengwar alphabet for English - Common Mode)

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar_welsh.htm (Tengwar alphabet for Welsh)

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar_gaelic.htm (Tengwar alphabet for Scottish Gaelic – devised by Uilleam Stiùbhart gaidheal@yahoo.com ).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tengwar

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.geocities.com/fontmaster.geo

http://hem.passagen.se/mansb/at

http://babel.uoregon.edu/yamada/fonts/tolkien.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 101

NAME: Tifinagh

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abjad (“vowels have been added recently” – Mafundikwa, p.46).

STATUS: Living minority script (currently used by nomadic Berbers in the Sahara Desert – Nakanishi, p.105).

USED FOR (language/family): Berber languages such as Tamasheq (Tamashek) and Amazigh (1 million speakers). Occasionally the script has been used to write other neighboring languages, such as Tagdal Songhai.

USED WHERE: by the Tuareg people of Morocco, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Algeria and Libya. Historically also used on the Canary Islands.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C3rd to current

ORIGIN: Derived from the Berber scrip. (Possibly Punic and North Arabic)

COMMENTS: Tifinagh is written without spaces between words. * ENCODED

A modern version, sometimes styled ‘Neo-Tifinagh’, was put forward by the Académie Berbère in the 1960's; it is written left to right, marks vowels, and has been modified to better fit Northern Berber phonology. In a modified form, this script has recently (2003) been adopted for pedagogical purposes in Morocco. From (http://www.yotor.com/wiki/en/ti/Tifinagh.htm )

Since September 2003, the Tifinagh abjad has been taught in primary schools in Morocco. It is also used by the Tuareg in coded messages in games, directions for finding water or game in the desert, for private notes, love letters and in decoration. The French designer and typographer Pierre di Sciullo digitized the script. For public purposes, the Arabic alphabet is normally used. (omniglot)

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.yotor.com/wiki/en/ti/Tifinagh.htm

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tifinagh.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.chez.com/imazighen/assckltfngh.html

http://www.mondeberbere.com/langue/polices.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 105.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp.47-48.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 102

NAME: Tirhuta

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Maithili, Mithilakshar

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script – endangered.

USED FOR (language/family): Maithili (Tirhutia), a Bihar dialect, Indo-Aryan (also used to write Sanskrit and Panji).

USED WHERE: North Eastern Bihar (16th most spoken language in India) and Nepal (used by 12% of the population in Nepal) (30 million speakers in total)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C7th to current minority use.

ORIGIN: Originated from Brahmi. Resembles the Bangla script

COMMENTS: Tirhuta was written on palm leaves and old paper called Basaha. *see Kaithi

Present day Maithili writers and public at large have adopted Devanagari script because of its widespread use, popularity and convenience. The Indian government has not recognized maithili as an official language and so it is not taught widely as other official state languages.

Today the Tirhuta script is used in hand-written invitation cards known as paataa.

The script was used in the Maithili Dictionary by Dr. Jay Kant Mishra.

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.indianngos.com/historyofpatna.htm

http://www.geocities.com/sidjha

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1011017/editoria.htm

http://cc.domaindlx.com/aapanmithila/mithila.html

http://cc.1asphost.com/mithila/about_maithili.asp

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Jha, Rajeshwar. 1971. Origin and development of Maithili Script. Patna: Kalika Press (in Maithili)

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.tirhutalipi.4t.com

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.sudhakarjha.com/old/content/view/67/72

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 103

NAME: Tulu

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abiguda

STATUS: Living minority script – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Tulu, Dravidian (alternate language names: Tal, Tallu, Thalu, Tilu, Tuluva Bhasa, Tullu, Thulu)

USED WHERE: Tulunadu, India (also taken to Kerala)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C15th to contemporary

ORIGIN: Dervied from the Grantha script. Influenced the Malayalam script.

COMMENTS: Tulu script was mainly used by Brahmins for writing Mantras.

Tulu is now mostly written with Kannada (introduced by German missionaries), while Tulu is mainly used in Kerala.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tcy

Woodward, Roger. 2004. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.yakshagana.com/Tululipi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.boloji.com/places/0020.htm

http://www.yakshagana.com/Tululipi.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 104

NAME: Turkestani

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE:

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: Unified Brahmi encoding? *need more info

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES:

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 105

NAME: (Old) Uighur

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Uyghur, Uiguir, Uygur, Novouygur, Chaghatai, Chaghatay

TYPE: Alphabetic

STATUS: Historical

USED FOR (language/family): Uighur, Altaic

USED WHERE: Central Asia and western China in the medieval ages.

Modern Uighur language - Mongolia (1000 modern speakers), Kazakhstan (300 000 modern speakers), Turkey (500 speakers at 1981), Afghanistan (3000 modern speakers), China (7,214,431 at 1990 census).

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C9th to circa C16th (when Arabic became widespread)

ORIGIN: Sogdian Aramaic, with modifications.

COMMENTS: Old Uighur was written horizontally from left to right and used in the Middle East before the rise of Islam. Now the Arabic script is mainly in use. * Note: Historic script, not modern Uighur.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MN

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.sinosplice.com/wp/wp-commentsrss2.php?p=256

http://www.colips.org/conference/iccc2005/submit/DilmuratEnglish.doc

http://silverhorde.viahistoria.com/main.html?research/UighurScript.html

http://www.uyghuramerican.org/layout/set/print/content/view/full/160/

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.babelstone.co.uk/Phags%2Dpa/Uighur.html

http://silverhorde.viahistoria.com/main.html?research/UighurScript.html

http://the_uighurs.tripod.com/Pictures/UighurScript.htm

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 97.

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 106

NAME: Vai

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family): Vai (currently 75 000 speakers), Mande group of Niger-Congo

USED WHERE: Liberia and Sierra Leone.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa 1820s to current

ORIGIN: Devised by Dualu Bukele (Momolu Duwalu Bukele) of Jondu, Liberia. (“Vai elders talk of the development of the script from ancient pictographs. Travelers in the region mention the widespread use of graphic symbols in rituals long before Bukele’s time. Modern Afrikan scholars give Dualu Bukele credit for phoneticizing the ancient pictographs and creating an efficient syllabary.” Mafundikwa, p.65).

COMMENTS: The oldest of the Mande syllabaries.

The only script to be used in translations from the Koran and the Bible (including a 1989 translation of the Gospel of Mark with the Latin script on the left and Vai on the right).

The script was standardized in 1899 and again in 1962, where new symbols were added, by the Standardization Committee at a conference at the University of Liberia. (The conference is said to have been dominated by Western-trained Vai scholars rather than the people who actually use the script. Since knowledge of the script is acquired informally rather than formally, there has been no mechanism for the imposition of the standardized version).

The scripts primary use is for correspondence and record-keeping.

192 phonetic characters (most users only employ 40-60 of the characters)

Vai is written from left to right.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 593-598.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa.

http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/n2948-vai.pdf

Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vai.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Maude Wahlman, Signs and Symbols: African Images in African American Quilts.

Dalby, David. 1967. ”A survey of the indigenous scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone: Vai, Mende, Loma, Kpelle and Bassa”, in African Language Studies 8:1–51.

Massaquoi, Momolu. 1911. “The Vai people and their syllabic writing”, in Journal of the Royal African Society 10.40, July, pp. 459-466.

Stewart, Gail, and P. E. H. Hair. 1969. “A Bibliography of the Vai Language and Script”, in Journal of West African Languages, volume VI, number 2, p. 124.

FONTS AVAILABLE:

http://www.geocities.com/jglavy/african.html (Jason Glavy - jglavy@livedoor.com )

http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=SILVai

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 105.

Mafundikwa, Saki. 2004. Afrikan Alphabets. The Story of Writing in Africa. pp. 66-69.

http://www.library.cornell.edu/africana/Writing_Systems/VAI.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 107

NAME: Varang Kshiti

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script (used in education and publications).

USED FOR (language/family): Ho, a Munda language (1,077,000 at 1997), Austro-Asiatic.

USED WHERE: India. (possibly in the areas in Singhbhum District; Orissa, Mayurbhanj and Koenjhar districts; West Bengal. Possibly in Bangladesh.) Devangari is the main script in use.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: ? to current

ORIGIN: Invented by community leader Lako Bodra as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. Bodra claims that the script was “invented in the 13th century by Dhawan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernised by Bodra himself”.

Probably based on Brahmi.

COMMENTS: 50 characters in the Varang Kshiti script.

Varang Kshiti is written from left to right in horizontal lines.

Latin, Telugu, and Oriya scripts have also been used to write Ho.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 616-17.

http://www.ethnologue.com

http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n1958.pdf

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/varangkshiti.htm

http://www.ontopia.net/i18n/script.jsp?id=varang-kshiti

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html?

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/varangkshiti.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 108

NAME: Vedic accents

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Historical – liturgical Chants

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE: Himalayas

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN:

COMMENTS: udaatta, svarita, and anudaatta. * SKIP FOR NOW

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/VedicHinduism.htm

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/vedic/Vedic_visarga_like_chars.pdf

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso10646/pdf/vedic/vedic-accents.pdf

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 109

NAME: Viet Thai

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: Abugida

STATUS: Living minority script

USED FOR (language/family):

USED WHERE: Vietnam?

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME:

ORIGIN: Brahmic

COMMENTS:

PRIMARY REFERENCES:

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.nectec.or.th/users/htk/publish/AFSIT14/Thailand-AFSIT14-report.pdf

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.evertype.com/standards/tai/viet-thai-samples.pdf

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 110

NAME: Visible Speech

ALTERNATE NAME(S):

TYPE: artificial script

STATUS: Living minority script.

USED FOR: teaching speech to hearing-impaired people.

USED WHERE: United States and Britain.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: 1867 to current.

ORIGIN: invented by Alexander Melville Bell in 1867.

COMMENTS: The system is composed of symbols that show the position and movement of the throat, tongue, and lips as they produced the sounds of language and it is a type of phonetic notation.

In 1880 Henry Sweet, a former pupil of Bell’s, published an updated version called the “Revised Organic Alphabet”.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: http://web.meson.org/write/vispeech.php

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/visiblespeech.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_Speech

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: Bell, A. 1881. Sounds and their Relations. http://web.meson.org/downloads/

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.travelphrases.info/gallery/Fonts_VisibleSpeechCSUR.html

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/visiblespeech.htm

PROPOSAL STATUS: YES http://www.evertype.com/standards/csur/visible-speech.html Michael Everson


ID: 111

NAME: Woleai script

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Caroline Islands script

TYPE: Syllabary, Abugida?

STATUS: Near modern? Living minority script?

USED FOR (language/family): Woleaian, Austronesian.

USED WHERE: Found on Woleai Island in the Caroline archipelago of Micronesia.

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: circa C20th to current? Definitely up to 50 years ago.

ORIGIN: Indigenous? Type 1 graphemes related to the Latin alphabet. Type 2 – ideographic? Related to Rongo Rongo? http://www.carolineislandscript.com/FAQ.htm point 4.

COMMENTS: There are two distinct scripts, known as ‘Type 1’ and ‘Type 2’. Type 1 includes at least 78 characters. Some characters are pictographic, a few resemble katakana and some seem to be pure invention.

The Type 1 script was used by the young chief of the island and was known only to five people on it, though it was also in use on Faraulep, a small island about 160 km to the northeast. In 1908 an expedition to Faraulep collected a number of symbols forming part of a counting system. The numbers ranged from 100,000 to 60 million and would have had no use in daily life. It seems unlikely that the Woleai script originated on a small isolated island. (from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dp5/easter3.htm ).

The Type 2 script includes 19 characters. All the characters in both scripts represent CV syllables. The values of the Type 2 characters (except for the plain vowels) are all in the form [Ci], representing the names of the letters of the Trukese alphabet, which was brought to the neighboring island in 1878 by an English missionary and thence, imperfectly understood, to Woleiai in 1905.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 584-85.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.carolineislandscript.com

http://www.proel.org/alfabetos/woleai.html http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dp5/easter3.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES: S.H. Reisenberg and S. Kaneshiro, “A Caroline Islands Script”

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 173, 269-333, Washington DC, the Smithsonian Institute, l960.

FONTS AVAILABLE: ( listed at: http://developer.apple.com/fonts/LastResortFont/LastResortTable.html )

SCRIPT SAMPLE: Nakanishi, Akira. 1980. Writing Systems of the World. p. 110.

http://www.carolineislandscript.com/CIS/ (photographs)

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 112

NAME: Yezidi

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Yazidi, Ezedi in Kurdish, Yezidi cryptic script

TYPE: Abjad?

STATUS: Living minority script - liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Kurdish and Arabic

USED WHERE: Iraq, Syria, Turkey and the Caucasus. (100 000 members of this group, also refugees in Europe)

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: to current

ORIGIN: Partly based on Perso-Arabic and partly on the Latin alphabet.

COMMENTS: Used for Holy books. * Note: May be a cipher or shorthand, not to be encoded. However, investigation is necessary to determine status.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 745.

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.masterliness.com/a/Yezidi.htm

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE:

SCRIPT SAMPLE:

PROPOSAL STATUS:


ID: 113

NAME: Yi extensions

ALTERNATE NAME(S): Cuan [tswen], Wei writing, Liangshan Yi

TYPE: Syllabary

STATUS: Living minority script – liturgical

USED FOR (language/family): Yi or Lolo, Tibeto-Burman (2-2.5 million modern speakers)

USED WHERE: China, central Yunnan and Szechuan

HISTORICAL TIMEFRAME: C16th to current.

ORIGIN: Siniform - influenced by the Chinese writing system. Yi characters apparently evolved from hieroglyphs.

COMMENTS: With many regional variants there was no single standardisation until 1975 (‘Black Yi’ – a Romanization used by Yi Christians) when a total of 819 characters were officially adopted and taught in schools since 1978. The term ‘classic Yi’ is applied to the characters used before the 1970s.

Between 8000-10000 characters in classic Yi.

Modern Yi – Classic Yi was not always a unified system because of the geographic separation of Yi tribes, and internal variation is not uncommon. An effort is being made to standardize the Yi script. The proposed modern Yi script has 819 characters, chosen from the classic writing.

PRIMARY REFERENCES: Daniels, P., and Bright, W., 1996. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 239-243.

http://www.ancientscripts.com/yi.html

http://www.evertype.com/standards/yy/n1187.html

SECONDARY REFERENCES: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/yi.htm

http://www.babelstone.co.uk/Yi/script.html

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:

FONTS AVAILABLE: http://www.sil.org/computing/fonts/silyi/

SCRIPT SAMPLE: http://www.ancientscripts.com/yi.html

PROPOSAL STATUS:


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Last updated: Fri Aug 3 07:40:37 2007